Medical College of Wisconsin
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Immunizations at Wisconsin Pharmacies: Results of a statewide vaccine registry analysis and pharmacist survey. Vaccine 2020 Jun 09;38(28):4448-4456



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Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85084664169 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   5 Citations


BACKGROUND: There is currently limited data in the United States on the proportion of immunization doses given at pharmacies outside the influenza vaccine. This study aims to obtain baseline information on the percentage of vaccine doses administered at pharmacies in Wisconsin and to understand the immunization barriers for Wisconsin pharmacists, to inform interventions to increase immunization access at pharmacies.

METHODS: Aggregated data from the Wisconsin Immunization Registry (WIR) was obtained for all vaccines administered at pharmacies to patients over the age of six from July 2017 through June 2018. In addition, a survey on attitudes towards and barriers to vaccination was sent to 2000 Wisconsin pharmacists with 236 respondents yielding a 12% response rate.

RESULTS: WIR data demonstrates that zoster and influenza vaccines have the highest proportion of doses administered at pharmacies (39% and 20%, respectively). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the lowest proportion of doses at 0.2%. Pharmacy survey shows that 86% provide immunizations. Most stock influenza vaccines (84%), whereas much fewer stock HPV vaccines (21%). The greatest immunization barriers for the pharmacy respondents include billing and reimbursement challenges and competing demands for staff.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the barriers, community pharmacies have significant potential to address vaccination gaps. Physicians, patients, and legislative bodies are generally well-accepting of pharmacists as immunizers. Pharmacists, in order to be fully utilized as immunizers, must engage in active communication with patients and be willing to collaborate with physicians. Legislative policy and health insurance reimbursement reforms are also necessary to facilitate further pharmacist participation in immunization.

Author List

Berce PC, Bernstein RS, MacKinnon GE, Sorum S, Martin E, MacKinnon KJ, Rein LE, Schellhase KG


Karen J. MacKinnon RPh Director, Assistant Professor in the School of Pharmacy Administration department at Medical College of Wisconsin
George MacKinnon PhD Founding Dean, Professor in the School of Pharmacy Administration department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Lisa E. Rein Biostatistician II in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Kenneth G. Schellhase MD, MPH Adjunct Professor in the Family Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Community Pharmacy Services
Surveys and Questionnaires
United States