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Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors and risk-assessment models. Haematologica 2015 Aug;100(8):1045-50



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84938635037   94 Citations


Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is increasing in pediatric centers. The objective of this work was to systematically review literature on pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk factors and risk-assessment models, to inform future prevention research. We conducted a literature search on pediatric venous thromboembolism risk via PubMed (1946-2014) and Embase (1980-2014). Data on risk factors and risk-assessment models were extracted from case-control studies, while prevalence data on clinical characteristics were obtained from registries, large (n>40) retrospective case series, and cohort studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for risk factors or clinical characteristics reported in at least three studies. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test and quantified by the I(2) statistic. From 394 initial articles, 60 met the final inclusion criteria (20 case-control studies and 40 registries/large case series/cohort studies). Significant risk factors among case-control studies were: intensive care unit stay (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.97-2.32); central venous catheter (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 2.00-2.25); mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42-1.72); and length of stay in hospital (per each additional day, OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.03-1.03). Three studies developed/applied risk-assessment models from a combination of these risk factors. Fourteen significant clinical characteristics were identified through non-case-control studies. This meta-analysis confirms central venous catheter, intensive care unit stay, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay as risk factors. A few pediatric hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk scores have emerged employing these factors. Prospective validation is necessary to inform risk-stratified prevention trials.

Author List

Mahajerin A, Branchford BR, Amankwah EK, Raffini L, Chalmers E, van Ommen CH, Goldenberg NA


Brian Branchford MD Associate Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Case-Control Studies
Hospital Mortality
Iatrogenic Disease
Odds Ratio
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Venous Thromboembolism