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Correlation of Computational Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio With Fractional Flow Reserve for Intermediate Multivessel Coronary Disease. J Biomech Eng 2021 05 01;143(5)



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85107163417   1 Citation


This study computationally assesses the accuracy of an instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) threshold range compared to standard modalities such as fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) for multiple intermediate lesions near the left main (LM) coronary bifurcation. iFR is an adenosine-independent index encouraged for assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD), but different thresholds are debated. This becomes particularly challenging in cases of multivessel disease when sensitivity to downstream lesions is unclear. Idealized LM coronary arteries with 34 different intermediate stenoses were created and categorized (Medina) as single and multiple lesion groups. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was performed with physiologic boundary conditions using an open-source software (simvascular1) to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. A strong linear relationship between iFR and FFR was observed among studied models, indicating computational iFR values of 0.92 and 0.93 are statistically equivalent to an FFR of 0.80 in single and multiple lesion groups, respectively. At the clinical FFR value (i.e., 0.8), a triple-lesion group had smaller CFR compared to the single and double lesion groups (e.g., triple = 3.077 versus single = 3.133 and double = 3.132). In general, the effect of additional intermediate downstream lesions (minimum lumen area > 3 mm2) was not statistically significant for iFR and CFR. A computational iFR of 0.92 best predicts an FFR of 0.80 and may be recommended as threshold criteria for computational assessment of LM stenosis following additional validation using patient-specific models.

Author List

Ghorbanniahassankiadeh A, Marks DS, LaDisa JF


John F. LaDisa PhD Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
David S. Marks MD Vice Chair, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial