Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

FMAQ-S: Development of a Short Form of the Family Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire. PRiMER 2021;5:21



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID





INTRODUCTION: Identifying and training students who choose family medicine careers is essential to meeting primary care workforce needs in the United States. Medical students' positive attitudes toward family medicine are associated with students' choice of family medicine as a specialty. This study sought to refine a previously tested questionnaire assessing US medical students' attitudes toward family medicine by shortening the questionnaire to make it more useful in educational practice and research settings.

METHODS: We refined our existing 14-item questionnaire by item analysis and validation. We conducted item analysis using a graded response model approach after identifying the unidimensionality of the original scale. We selected items based on their item discrimination parameters and item information levels, and calculated the correlation between specialty choice and family medicine attitudes score to evaluate criterion validity.

RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses indicated the questionnaire is unidimensional. Among the original 14 items, 10 items had high item discrimination parameters and low standard error of measurement. These 10 items contribute the most to distinguishing individuals' differences in family medicine attitudes and were selected for inclusion in the short-form questionnaire (FMAQ-S). The point-biserial correlation between the short-form scale and students' choice of family medicine was 0.378, which provides supporting evidence for criterion validity.

CONCLUSION: The FMAQ-S is a concise and validated measure for assessing medical student attitudes toward family medicine. This abbreviated questionnaire can be used by medical educators to identify students for specific programming or interventions intended to support family medicine specialty choice.

Author List

Kang H, Prunuske J, Wendling AL, Edwards-Johnson J, Phillips JP


Jacob P. Prunuske MD Assistant Dean, Professor in the Medical School Regional Campuses department at Medical College of Wisconsin