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Using multiband multi-echo imaging to improve the robustness and repeatability of co-activation pattern analysis for dynamic functional connectivity. Neuroimage 2021 Nov;243:118555



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Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85114307390 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   3 Citations


Emerging evidence has shown that functional connectivity is dynamic and changes over the course of a scan. Furthermore, connectivity patterns can arise from short periods of co-activation on the order of seconds. Recently, a dynamic co-activation patterns (CAPs) analysis was introduced to examine the co-activation of voxels resulting from individual timepoints. The goal of this study was to apply CAPs analysis on resting state fMRI data collected using an advanced multiband multi-echo (MBME) sequence, in comparison with a multiband (MB) sequence with a single echo. Data from 28 healthy control subjects were examined. Subjects underwent two resting state scans, one MBME and one MB, and 19 subjects returned within two weeks for a repeat scan session. Data preprocessing included advanced denoising namely multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA) for the MBME data and an ICA-based strategy for Automatic Removal of Motion Artifacts (ICA-AROMA) for the MB data. The CAPs analysis was conducted using the newly published TbCAPs toolbox. CAPs were extracted using both seed-based and seed-free approaches. Timepoints were clustered using k-means clustering. The following metrics were compared between MBME and MB datasets: mean activation in each CAP, the spatial correlation and mean squared error (MSE) between each timepoint and the centroid CAP it was assigned to, within-dataset variance across timepoints assigned to the same CAP, and the between-session spatial correlation of each CAP. Co-activation was heightened for MBME data for the majority of CAPs. Spatial correlation and MSE between each timepoint and its assigned centroid CAP were higher and lower respectively for MBME data. The within-dataset variance was also lower for MBME data. Finally, the between-session spatial correlation was higher for MBME data. Overall, our findings suggest that the advanced MBME sequence is a promising avenue for the measurement of dynamic co-activation patterns by increasing the robustness and reproducibility of the CAPs.

Author List

Cohen AD, Chang C, Wang Y


Yang Wang MD Professor in the Radiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Brain Mapping
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Middle Aged
Nerve Net
Reproducibility of Results