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Ecological Study of Variability in the Relationship between Liver Cancer Mortality and Racial Residential Segregation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 15;18(18)



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Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85114895873 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   1 Citation


Racial segregation has been identified as a predictor for the burden of cancer in several different metropolitan areas across the United States. This ecological study tested relationships between racial segregation and liver cancer mortality across several different metropolitan statistical areas in Wisconsin. Tract-level liver cancer mortality rates were calculated using cases from 2003-2012. Hotspot analysis was conducted and segregation scores in high, low, and baseline mortality tracts were compared using ANOVA. Spatial regression analysis was done, controlling for socioeconomic advantage and rurality. Black isolation scores were significantly higher in high-mortality tracts compared to baseline and low-mortality tracts, but stratification by metropolitan areas found this relationship was driven by two of the five metropolitan areas. Hispanic isolation was predictive for higher mortality in regression analysis, but this effect was not found across all metropolitan areas. This study showed associations between liver cancer mortality and racial segregation but also found that this relationship was not generalizable to all metropolitan areas in the study area.

Author List

Bemanian A, Cassidy LD, Fraser R, Laud PW, Saeian K, Beyer KMM


Kirsten M. Beyer PhD, MPH Associate Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Laura Cassidy PhD Associate Dean, Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Kia Saeian MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Liver Neoplasms
Residence Characteristics
Social Segregation
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Urban Population