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Habit and diabetes self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Health Psychol 2022 Jan;41(1):13-22



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85120849514 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   3 Citations


OBJECTIVE: The development of habit (i.e., behavioral automaticity, the extent to which a behavior is performed with decreased thresholds for time, attention [effort], conscious awareness, and goal dependence), for goal-directed health behaviors facilitates health behavior engagement in daily life. However, there is a paucity of research examining automaticity for Type 1 diabetes self-management in adolescence. This study examined if greater perceived automaticity for diabetes self-management was associated with increased daily self-management, decreased daily self-regulation failures in glucose checking, and more optimal daily glycemic levels in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

METHOD: Adolescents aged 13-17 and diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes (n = 79) completed the Self-Report Behavioral Automaticity Index, a measure of automaticity of diabetes self-management (i.e., automaticity of glucose checking, carbohydrate counting, and insulin dosing), and a measure of perceived self-management at baseline. One to 3 months later, a subsample of teens (n = 42) also completed a daily diary for a 7-day period including perceptions of daily self-management, daily self-regulation failures in glucose checking, and daily glucose levels.

RESULTS: Greater overall automaticity of diabetes self-management was associated with greater baseline and daily self-management, fewer daily self-regulation failures in glucose checking, and lower average daily mean blood glucose levels but not more optimal daily variations in blood glucose levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Greater automaticity for diabetes self-management may support more optimal daily diabetes self-management in adolescence. Further research is needed to clarify the benefits and mechanisms of automaticity and explore possible interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

Author List

Cummings C, Benjamin NE, Prabhu HY, Cohen LB, Goddard BJ, Kaugars AS, Humiston T, Lansing AH


Astrida Kaugars PhD Associate Professor of Psychology in the Psychology department at Marquette University

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Blood Glucose
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Health Behavior