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Context Matters: Assessing the Association Between Area Deprivation and the Severity of Injury and Types of Domestic Violence Victimization Among Women. J Interpers Violence 2022 Dec;37(23-24):NP22352-NP22374



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85124171826 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   2 Citations


OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between social determinants of health (SDOH), as measured by the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and the severity of injury and types of domestic violence (DV) victimization among women (≥18 years of age) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

METHODS: Neighborhood ADI data from the American Community Survey (2014-2018) were merged with Milwaukee Police Department DV data (2013-2017). ADI included multiple SDOH domains (education, employment, income/poverty, and housing quality). Types of DV were classified using an adaptation of the FBI-Uniform Crime Reporting-Hierarchy Rule, including Crimes Against Persons (homicide/negligent manslaughter, sexual assault/rape, and aggravated battery/assault). Chi-square, Anova tests, and logistic regression analyses were performed using Stata v.14.2; p-values ≤ .05 were considered statistically significant.

FINDINGS: Except for aggravated battery/assault (OR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.010), there was no statistically significant relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and DV victimization in 21,095 DV incidents between 2013 and 2017. Adjusted model results indicate that with each increase in neighborhood disadvantage (by ADI), there was a 1.003 increase in the likelihood for aggravated battery/assault (OR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.005). Severity of DV injury was not significantly associated with ADI (OR: 1.002, 95% CI: 0.999-1.004). However, non-Hispanic Black women were 1.3 times more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to be victims of aggravated battery/assault (OR: 1.321, 95% CI: 1.189-1.469). Hispanic women were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to sustain a more severe injury (OR: 0.841, 95% CI: 0.732-0.970]).

CONCLUSION: The likelihood of DV-aggravated battery/assault increased with neighborhood deprivation, and significant associations (and highly lopsided prevalence) were found in types of DV victimization by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic Black women experiencing higher prevalence than others. This study adds to the body of knowledge by looking at how macro-level neighborhood-SDOH characteristics influence women's exposure to various forms of DV victimization and demonstrated the feasibility of linking law enforcement DV data to SDOH metrics, providing context for law enforcement DV victimizations.

Author List

Shour AR, Hamberger LK, Meurer J, Kostelac C, Cassidy L


Laura Cassidy PhD Associate Dean, Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
John R. Meurer MD, MBA Institute Director, Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Crime Victims
Domestic Violence