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Cryptococcal infection with ruxolitinib in primary myelofibrosis: A case report and literature review. Clin Case Rep 2022 Feb;10(2):e05461



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Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) is an encapsulated yeast that is found worldwide. It causes self-limiting infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, infections due to CN could be disseminated and potentially life-threatening in immunocompromised hosts. Herein, we present a patient with primary myelofibrosis who received ruxolitinib and developed disseminated cryptococcosis due to CN. We further discuss immune compromising factors indigenous to myeloproliferative neoplasms, ruxolitinib, and immunological pathways associated with janus kinase inhibition. We further review other cases of cryptococcal infections in patients receiving ruxolitinib reported in the literature. The report underscores the importance of suspecting infections with intracellular pathogens early in the course of illness in patients with higher rates of cumulative immunosuppression. A high clinical suspicion should be maintained when caring for such immunosuppressed patients receiving immunomodulatory agents as severe, disseminated infections can present atypically and lead to worse outcomes.

Author List

Ciochetto Z, Wainaina N, Graham MB, Corey A, Abid MB


Mary Beth Graham MD Associate Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin