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Conal Septal Hypoplasia in Tetralogy of Fallot-Impact on Clinical Course, Treatment Strategies, and Outcomes After Surgical Intervention. Pediatr Cardiol 2023 Mar;44(3):587-598



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85134490795 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)


We sought to characterize the clinical course and outcomes of intervention for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with associated conal septal hypoplasia (CSH) compared to those with identifiable conal septum on initial newborn echocardiogram. We performed a retrospective, 1:2 case-control study of children with TOF anatomy, 33 with CSH and 66 with typical TOF, who underwent surgical repair from 1991-2019 at Children's Wisconsin. Data on echocardiographic anatomic features, systemic oxygen saturations, medical therapies, admissions, palliative interventions, operative strategies, and long-term follow-up were compared. The CSH group had fewer hypercyanotic spells (6% vs 42%, p < 0.001), beta-blockers prescribed (12% vs 41%, p = 0.005), and hospital admissions for cyanosis (12% vs 44%; p = 0.001) prior to any intervention. Of 14 who required palliative intervention, 8 had balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) (7 from the CSH group and 1 from the control group), and 6 had systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts (all from the control group). Definitive repair was performed at a significantly older age in the CSH group (10.2 ± 10 vs 5.6 ± 5.9 months, p = 0.011), with less subpulmonary muscle resection (57.6% in vs 92.4%, p < 0.001) and higher use of a transannular patch (84.8% vs 65.2%, p = 0.040). The average time to surgical reintervention was similar in both groups (9.7 ± 5.9 vs 8.6 ± 6.4 years in controls). We conclude that infants with TOF and CSH have a milder preoperative clinical course with fewer hypercyanotic spells or need for medical therapy. They also respond well to palliative BPV and can safely undergo later definitive repair compared to typical TOF with a well-developed conal septum.

Author List

Borsheim KE, Woods RK, Kuhn EM, Frommelt PC


Peter C. Frommelt MD Adjunct Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Ronald K. Woods MD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Case-Control Studies
Conus Snail
Disease Progression
Infant, Newborn
Retrospective Studies
Tetralogy of Fallot
Treatment Outcome