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Persisting high rates of omissions during anesthesia induction are decreased by utilization of a pre- & post-induction checklist. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2023 Apr;42(2):101186



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85145770473 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   1 Citation


INTRODUCTION: Although Checklists (CL) for routine anesthesia cases have demonstrated their values in various studies, they have found little traction so far. While several reports have shown the benefit of CL preventing omissions prior to anesthesia induction, no investigation yet has scrutinized omissions during the post-induction phase immediately after intubation. This study evaluated the rate of omissions prior to and following the induction of non-emergent general anesthesia, as well as the impact of checklists on omission prevention.

METHODS: We performed a monocentric, prospective, observational study during induction of general anesthesia cases. We evaluated the omission rate made for the pre- as well as the immediate post-induction phase and determined the impact of pre-and post-induction CL on the rate of omission corrections. The CL used were introduced two years prior to the study. The observed providers were limited to those familiar with the institutional CL. Usage of CL was not mandated.

RESULTS: 237 general anesthesia inductions were included in the observation. At least one omission in 32% of all cases in the pre-induction setup was found and in 40% within the immediate post-induction phases. CL significantly reduced omission rates (relative risk = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.92, p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Omission rates during the pre- and post-induction phases of routine general anesthesia procedures remain high. Pre- and post-induction CL have the potential to increase patient safety and should be considered for routine anesthesia with appropriate training provided.

Author List

Krombach JW, Zürcher C, Simon SG, Saxena S, Pirracchio R


Jens Krombach MD Vice Chair, Director, Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Anesthesia, General
Internship and Residency
Prospective Studies