Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

Extracting spacing-derived estimates of rod density in healthy retinae. Biomed Opt Express 2023 Jan 01;14(1):1-17



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85144608208 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   3 Citations


Quantification of the rod photoreceptor mosaic using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a method for deriving estimates of rod density and rod:cone ratio based on measures of rod spacing, cone numerosity, and cone inner segment area. Twenty-two AOSLO images with complete rod visualization were used to validate this spacing-derived method for estimating density. The method was then used to estimate rod metrics in an additional 105 images without complete rod visualization. The spacing-derived rod mosaic metrics were comparable to published data from histology. This method could be leveraged to develop large normative databases of rod mosaic metrics, though limitations persist with intergrader variability in assessing cone area and numerosity.

Author List

Heitkotter H, Patterson EJ, Woertz EN, Cava JA, Gaffney M, Adhan I, Tam J, Cooper RF, Carroll J


Joseph J. Carroll PhD Director, Professor in the Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Robert F. Cooper Ph.D Assistant Professor in the Biomedical Engineering department at Marquette University