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Pediatric Myeloid Sarcoma, More than Just a Chloroma: A Review of Clinical Presentations, Significance, and Biology. Cancers (Basel) 2023 Feb 24;15(5)



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Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85149898211 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   2 Citations


Myeloid sarcomas (MS), commonly referred to as chloromas, are extramedullary tumors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with varying incidence and influence on outcomes. Pediatric MS has both a higher incidence and unique clinical presentation, cytogenetic profile, and set of risk factors compared to adult patients. Optimal treatment remains undefined, yet allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and epigenetic reprogramming in children are potential therapies. Importantly, the biology of MS development is poorly understood; however, cell-cell interactions, epigenetic dysregulation, cytokine signaling, and angiogenesis all appear to play key roles. This review describes pediatric-specific MS literature and the current state of knowledge about the biological determinants that drive MS development. While the significance of MS remains controversial, the pediatric experience provides an opportunity to investigate mechanisms of disease development to improve patient outcomes. This brings the hope of better understanding MS as a distinct disease entity deserving directed therapeutic approaches.

Author List

Zorn KE, Cunningham AM, Meyer AE, Carlson KS, Rao S


Karen-Sue B. Carlson MD, PhD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Ashley Cunningham MD Associate Professor in the Pathology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Sridhar Rao MD, PhD Associate Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin