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Upper cervical spine bone mineral content variations in elderly females. Accid Anal Prev 2023 Dec;193:107329



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85172903287 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)


The purpose of the study was to determine the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the C1 and C2 vertebrae and discuss their implications for autonomous vehicle environments and vulnerable road users. Using quantitated computed tomography (QCT), the BMDs were obtained at eight regions for the C1 vertebra and seven regions for the C2 vertebra. The spine surgeon author outlined the boundaries of each region, and nine elderly female human cadaver specimens were used. The regions were based on potential stabilization locations for fracture fixation. In the C1 vertebra, the BMD was greatest at the anterior tubercle, followed by the posterior tubercle, the posterior arch, and the lateral and anterior lateral masses. In the C2 vertebra, the distal odontoid had the greatest BMD, followed by the spinous process, the C2-lateral mass, the odontoid-body interface, and the anterior inferior aspect of the body. Use of these data in female-specific finite element models may lead to a better understanding of load paths, injuries, mechanisms, and tolerance.

Author List

Yoganandan N, Baisden J, Vedantam A, Varghese V, Banerjee A


Anjishnu Banerjee PhD Associate Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Aditya Vedantam MD Assistant Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Narayan Yoganandan PhD Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Accidents, Traffic
Bone Density
Cervical Vertebrae