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Strain Response of an Anatomically Accurate Nonhuman Primate Finite Element Brain Model Under Sagittal Loading. Mil Med 2023 Nov 08;188(Suppl 6):634-641



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85176399829 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)


INTRODUCTION: Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injuries is critical to preserving soldier brain health. Laboratory studies are commonly used to reproduce injuries, understand injury mechanisms, and develop tolerance limits; however, this approach has limitations for studying brain injury, which requires a physiological response. The nonhuman primate (NHP) has been used as an effective model for investigating brain injury for many years. Prior research using the NHP provides a valuable resource to leverage using modern analysis and modeling techniques to improve our understanding of brain injury. The objectives of the present study are to develop an anatomically accurate finite element model of the NHP and determine regional brain responses using previously collected NHP data.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The finite element model was developed using a neuroimaging-based anatomical atlas of the rhesus macaque that includes both cortical and subcortical structures. Head kinematic data from 10 sagittal NHP experiments, four +Gx (rearward) and six -Gx (frontal), were used to test model stability and obtain brain strain responses from multiple severities and vectors.

RESULTS: For +Gx tests, the whole-brain cumulative strain damage measure exceeding a strain threshold of 0.15 (CSDM15) ranged from 0.28 to 0.89, and 95th percentile of the whole-brain maximum principal strain (MPS95) ranged from 0.21 to 0.59. For -Gx tests, whole-brain CSDM15 ranged from 0.02 to 0.66, and whole-brain MPS95 ranged from 0.08 to 0.39.

CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing that NHPs are the closest surrogate to humans combined with the limitations of conducting brain injury research in the laboratory, a detailed anatomically accurate finite element model of an NHP was developed and exercised using previously collected data from the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. The presently developed model can be used to conduct additional analyses to act as pilot data for the design of newer experiments with statistical power because of the sensitivity and resources needed to conduct experiments with NHPs.

Author List

Rooks TF, Chancey VC, Baisden JL, Yoganandan N


Narayan Yoganandan PhD Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Biomechanical Phenomena
Brain Injuries
Finite Element Analysis
Macaca mulatta