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Experimental trauma to the malar eminence: fracture biomechanics and injury patterns. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001 Oct;125(4):351-5



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-0035490817   5 Citations


OBJECTIVES: To document patterns of facial fractures after trauma to the malar eminence and to elucidate biomechanical factors relevant to the injury patterns.

STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Studies were conducted on 14 cadaver heads. Study variables included impact velocity, contact area, impact force, and zygomatic skin thickness. Bony fractures and clinical injury patterns were documented. A fracture severity rating scale was devised and statistically correlated to the study variables using regression ANOVA analysis.

RESULTS: A broad spectrum of facial fracture patterns was found. Skin thickness and surface area did not correlate with fracture severity (P = 0.67, P = 0.83, respectively). Impact force demonstrated a trend toward significance (P = 0.14). Velocity was most correlative with fracture severity (P = 0.07). A critical threshold velocity (3.5 m/s) was found to correlate with the most severe fracture patterns.

CONCLUSIONS: A broad spectrum of facial fracture patterns was demonstrated after experimental trauma to the malar eminence. Contact surface area and zygomatic skin thickness were not found to be significant factors in fracture severity. Velocity, rather than impact force, was most correlative with fracture severity. The most severe fracture patterns were elicited by velocities above 3.5 m/s.

Author List

Rhee JS, Posey L, Yoganandan N, Pintar F


Frank A. Pintar PhD Chair, Professor in the Biomedical Engineering department at Medical College of Wisconsin
John S. Rhee MD Chair, Professor in the Otolaryngology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Narayan Yoganandan PhD Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Biomechanical Phenomena
Injury Severity Score
Middle Aged
Zygomatic Fractures
jenkins-FCD Prod-478 d1509cf07a111124a2d122fd3df854cc0b993c00