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CT urography of urinary diversions with enhanced CT digital radiography: preliminary experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005 Jan;184(1):131-8



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-11144271119 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   39 Citations


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if 3D-rendered CT urography (CTU) depicts both normal and abnormal findings in patients with urinary diversions and if the addition of contrast-enhanced CT digital radiography (CTDR) improves opacification of the urinary collecting system.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty CTU and contrast-enhanced CTDR examinations were performed in 24 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer. Indications for evaluation included hematuria, tumor surveillance, or suspected diversion malfunction. All examinations were evaluated without knowledge of the stage or grade of a patient's tumor and were compared with the clinical records. Opacification of the urinary collecting system was evaluated with 3D CTU alone, contrast-enhanced CTDR alone, and combined CTU and CTDR.

RESULTS: Nine abnormalities were identified including distal ureteral strictures (n = 4), vascular compression of the mid left ureter (n = 1), scarring of the mid right pole infundibulum (n = 1), bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter (n = 1), urinary reservoir calculus (n = 1), and tumor recurrence invading the afferent limb of the neobladder (n = 1). Eight of the nine detected abnormalities were surgically or pathologically confirmed. All abnormalities were identified on all three imaging techniques but were best seen on 3D CTU and enhanced CTDR images. Incomplete opacification of the urinary collecting system occurred in 17 patients with CTU alone, 12 patients with contrast-enhanced CTDR alone, and nine patients with combined CTU and contrast-enhanced CTDR. Compared with CTU alone, the combined technique of 3D CTU and contrast-enhanced CTDR improved opacification by a statistically significant difference (p = 0.037).

CONCLUSION: CTU with 3D rendering can accurately depict both normal and abnormal postoperative findings in patients with urinary diversions. Adding enhanced CTDR can improve visualization of the urinary collecting system.

Author List

Sudakoff GS, Guralnick M, Langenstroer P, Foley WD, Cihlar KL, Shakespear JS, See WA


Michael Guralnick MD Professor in the Urologic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Peter Langenstroer MD Professor in the Urologic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Chi-Square Distribution
Contrast Media
Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Middle Aged
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Urinary Bladder
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Urinary Diversion