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Hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in developing countries: perspectives from Latin America in the post-tyrosine kinase inhibitor era. Hematology 2012 Apr;17 Suppl 1:S79-82



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84859747161   9 Citations


Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently the first line treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in countries with high and intermediate-high gross national income. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in these countries is considered salvage therapy for eligible patients who failed TKI or progress to advanced disease stages. In Latin America, treatment for CML also changed with availability of TKI in the region. However, many challenges remain, as the cost of this class of medication and recommended monitoring is high. CML treatment practices in Latin America demonstrate that the majority of patients are treated with TKI at some point after diagnosis, most commonly imatinib mesylate, but still TKI can only be used after interferon failure in some countries. Other treatment practices are different from established international guidelines, outlying the importance of continuing medical education. Allogeneic HCT is a treatment option for CML in this region and could be considered a cost-effective approach in a small subset of young patients with available donors, as the overall cost of long-term non-transplant treatment may surpass the cost of transplantation. However, there are many challenges with HCT in Latin America such as access to experienced transplant centers, donor availability, and cost of essential drugs used after transplant, which further impacts expansion of this treatment approach in patients in need. In conclusion, Latin American patients with CML have access to state of the art CML treatment. Yet, drug costs have a tremendous impact on developing health systems. Optimization of CML treatment in the region with appropriate monitoring, recognizing patients who would be transplant candidates, and expanding access to transplantation for eligible patients may curtail these costs and further improve patient care.

Author List

Pasquini MC


Marcelo C. Pasquini MD, MS Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Antineoplastic Agents
Developing Countries
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Latin America
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Transplantation, Homologous
jenkins-FCD Prod-482 91ad8a360b6da540234915ea01ff80e38bfdb40a