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Ten myths about decision-making capacity. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2005 May-Jun;6(3 Suppl):S100-4

Date

05/14/2005

Pubmed ID

15890283

DOI

10.1016/j.jamda.2005.03.021

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85052545253   53 Citations

Abstract

As a matter of practical reality, what role patients will play in decisions about their health care is determined by whether their clinicians judge them to have decision-making capacity. Because so much hinges on assessments of capacity, clinicians who work with patients have an ethical obligation to understand this concept. This article, based on a report prepared by the National Ethics Committee (NEC) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), seeks to provide clinicians with practical information about decision-making capacity and how it is assessed. A study of clinicians and ethics committee chairs carried out under the auspices of the NEC identified the following 10 common myths clinicians hold about decision-making capacity: (1) decision-making capacity and competency are the same; (2) lack of decision-making capacity can be presumed when patients go against medical advice; (3) there is no need to assess decision-making capacity unless patients go against medical advice; (4) decision-making capacity is an "all or nothing" phenomenon; (5) cognitive impairment equals lack of decision-making capacity; (6) lack of decision-making capacity is a permanent condition; (7) patients who have not been given relevant and consistent information about their treatment lack decision-making capacity; (8) all patients with certain psychiatric disorders lack decision-making capacity; (9) patients who are involuntarily committed lack decision-making capacity; and (10) only mental health experts can assess decision-making capacity. By describing and debunking these common misconceptions, this article attempts to prevent potential errors in the clinical assessment of decision-making capacity, thereby supporting patients' right to make choices about their own health care.

Author List

Ganzini L, Volicer L, Nelson WA, Fox E, Derse AR

Author

Arthur R. Derse MD, JD Director, Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Cognition Disorders
Decision Making
Ethics, Medical
Humans
Informed Consent
Mental Competency
Mental Disorders
Treatment Refusal