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Preclinical anatomical, molecular, and functional imaging of the lung with multiple modalities. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2014 May 15;306(10):L897-914



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84900823117   26 Citations


In vivo imaging is an important tool for preclinical studies of lung function and disease. The widespread availability of multimodal animal imaging systems and the rapid rate of diagnostic contrast agent development have empowered researchers to noninvasively study lung function and pulmonary disorders. Investigators can identify, track, and quantify biological processes over time. In this review, we highlight the fundamental principles of bioluminescence, fluorescence, planar X-ray, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear imaging modalities (such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography) that have been successfully employed for the study of lung function and pulmonary disorders in a preclinical setting. The major principles, benefits, and applications of each imaging modality and technology are reviewed. Limitations and the future prospective of multimodal imaging in pulmonary physiology are also discussed. In vivo imaging bridges molecular biological studies, drug design and discovery, and the imaging field with modern medical practice, and, as such, will continue to be a mainstay in biomedical research.

Author List

Gammon ST, Foje N, Brewer EM, Owers E, Downs CA, Budde MD, Leevy WM, Helms MN


Matthew Budde PhD Associate Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Lung Diseases
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Optical Imaging
Positron-Emission Tomography
Tomography, X-Ray Computed