Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

Changes in glutamate receptor subunits within the medulla in goats after section of the carotid sinus nerves. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2014 Jun 15;116(12):1531-42



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84902472363 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   7 Citations


The mechanisms which contribute to the time-dependent recovery of resting ventilation and the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex after carotid body denervation (CBD) are poorly understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that there are time-dependent changes in the expression of specific AMPA, NMDA, and/or neurokinin-1 (NK1R) receptors within respiratory-related brain stem nuclei acutely or chronically after CBD in adult goats. Brain stem tissues were collected acutely (5 days) or chronically (30 days) after sham or bilateral CBD, immunostained with antibodies targeting AMPA (GluA1 or GluA2), NMDA (GluN1), or NK-1 receptors, and optical density (OD) compared. Physiological measurement confirmed categorization of each group and showed ventilatory effects consistent with bilateral CBD (Miller et al. J Appl Physiol 115: 1088-1098, 2013). Acutely after CBD, GluA1 OD was unchanged or slightly increased, but GluA2 and GluN1 OD were reduced 15-30% within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and in other medullary respiratory nuclei. Chronically after CBD, GluA1 was reduced (P < 0.05) within the caudal NTS and in other nuclei, but there was significant recovery of GluA2 and GluN1 OD. NK1 OD was not significantly different from control after CBD. We conclude that the initial decrease in GluA2 and GluN1 after CBD likely contributes to hypoventilation and the reduced CO2 chemoreflex. The partial recovery of ventilation and the CO2 chemoreflex after CBD parallel a time-dependent return of these receptors to near control levels but likely depend upon additional initiating and maintenance factors for neuroplasticity.

Author List

Miller JR, Neumueller S, Muere C, Olesiak S, Pan L, Bukowy JD, Daghistany AO, Hodges MR, Forster HV


Hubert V. Forster PhD Professor in the Physiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Matthew R. Hodges PhD Professor in the Physiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Carbon Dioxide
Carotid Body
Carotid Sinus
Medulla Oblongata
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Receptors, AMPA
Receptors, Glutamate
Receptors, Neurokinin-1
Solitary Nucleus