Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

TNF and increased intracellular iron alter macrophage polarization to a detrimental M1 phenotype in the injured spinal cord. Neuron 2014 Sep 03;83(5):1098-116

Date

08/19/2014

Pubmed ID

25132469

DOI

10.1016/j.neuron.2014.07.027

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84908028367 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   464 Citations

Abstract

Macrophages and microglia can be polarized along a continuum toward a detrimental (M1) or a beneficial (M2) state in the injured CNS. Although phagocytosis of myelin in vitro promotes M2 polarization, macrophage/microglia in the injured spinal cord retain a predominantly M1 state that is detrimental to recovery. We have identified two factors that underlie this skewing toward M1 polarization in the injured CNS. We show that TNF prevents phagocytosis-mediated conversion from M1 to M2 cells in vitro and in vivo in spinal cord injury (SCI). Additionally, iron that accumulates in macrophages in SCI increases TNF expression and the appearance of a macrophage population with a proinflammatory mixed M1/M2 phenotype. In addition, transplantation experiments show that increased loading of M2 macrophages with iron induces a rapid switch from M2 to M1 phenotype. The combined effect of this favors predominant and prolonged M1 macrophage polarization that is detrimental to recovery after SCI.

Author List

Kroner A, Greenhalgh AD, Zarruk JG, Passos Dos Santos R, Gaestel M, David S

Author

Antje Kroner-Milsch MD, PhD Associate Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Animals
Apoptosis
Cytokines
Cytoprotection
Disease Models, Animal
Gene Expression Regulation
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Intracellular Fluid
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Iron
Macrophages
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Transgenic
Microglia
Myelin Sheath
Phenotype
Spinal Cord Injuries
Time Factors
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha