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Preschool Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children with Congenital Heart Disease. J Pediatr 2017 Apr;183:80-86.e1



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Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85015999894 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   42 Citations


OBJECTIVE: To describe preschool neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), who were evaluated as part of a longitudinal cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up program, as recommended by the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics, and identify predictors of neurodevelopmental outcomes in these children.

STUDY DESIGN: Children with CHD meeting the American Heart Association/American Academy of Pediatrics high-risk criteria for neurodevelopmental delay were evaluated at 4-5 years of age. Testing included standardized neuropsychological measures. Parents completed measures of child functioning. Scores were compared by group (single ventricle [1V]; 2 ventricles [2V]; CHD plus known genetic condition) to test norms and classified as: normal (within 1 SD of mean); at risk (1-2 SD from mean); and impaired (>2 SD from mean).

RESULTS: Data on 102 patients were analyzed. Neurodevelopmental scores did not differ based on cardiac anatomy (1V vs 2V); both groups scored lower than norms on fine motor and adaptive behavior skills, but were within 1 SD of norms. Patients with genetic conditions scored significantly worse than 1V and 2V groups and test norms on most measures.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with CHD and genetic conditions are at greatest neurodevelopmental risk. Deficits in children with CHD without genetic conditions were mild and may not be detected without formal longitudinal testing. Parents and providers need additional education regarding the importance of developmental follow-up for children with CHD.

Author List

Brosig CL, Bear L, Allen S, Hoffmann RG, Pan A, Frommelt M, Mussatto KA


Laurel M. Bear MD Associate Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Cheryl L. Brosig Soto PhD Chief, Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Kathleen Mussatto Ph.D. Associate Professor in the School of Nursing department at Milwaukee School of Engineering
Amy Y. Pan PhD Associate Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Age Factors
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Developmental Disabilities
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Defects, Congenital
Infant, Newborn
Intellectual Disability
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Multivariate Analysis
Neuropsychological Tests
Risk Assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
United States