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Expert consensus guidelines for stocking of antidotes in hospitals that provide emergency care. Ann Emerg Med 2009 Sep;54(3):386-394.e1



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-68649103961   82 Citations


STUDY OBJECTIVE: We developed recommendations for antidote stocking at hospitals that provide emergency care.

METHODS: An expert panel representing diverse perspectives (clinical pharmacology, clinical toxicology, critical care medicine, clinical pharmacy, emergency medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, poison centers, pulmonary medicine, and hospital accreditation) was formed to create recommendations for antidote stocking. Using a standardized summary of the medical literature, the primary reviewer for each antidote proposed guidelines for antidote stocking to the full panel. The panel used a formal iterative process to reach their recommendation for the quantity of an antidote that should be stocked and the acceptable period for delivery of each antidote.

RESULTS: The panel recommended consideration of 24 antidotes for stocking. The panel recommended that 12 of the antidotes be available for immediate administration on patient arrival. In most hospitals, this period requires that the antidote be stocked in the emergency department. Another 9 antidotes were recommended for availability within 1 hour of the decision to administer, allowing the antidote to be stocked in the hospital pharmacy if the hospital has a mechanism for prompt delivery of antidotes. The panel identified additional antidotes that should be stocked by the hospital but are not usually needed within the first hour of treatment. The panel recommended that each hospital perform a formal antidote hazard vulnerability assessment to determine the need for antidote stocking in that hospital.

CONCLUSION: The antidote expert recommendations provide a tool to be used in creating practices for appropriate and adequate antidote stocking in hospitals that provide emergency care.

Author List

Dart RC, Borron SW, Caravati EM, Cobaugh DJ, Curry SC, Falk JL, Goldfrank L, Gorman SE, Groft S, Heard K, Miller K, Olson KR, O'Malley G, Seger D, Seifert SA, Sivilotti ML, Schaeffer T, Tomassoni AJ, Wise R, Bogdan GM, Alhelail M, Buchanan J, Hoppe J, Lavonas E, Mlynarchek S, Phua DH, Rhyee S, Varney S, Zosel A, Antidote Summit Authorship Group


Amy Elizabeth Zosel MD Associate Professor in the Emergency Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Drug Storage
Drug Utilization
Emergency Service, Hospital
Evidence-Based Medicine
Pharmacy Service, Hospital