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Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 4 years in children with congenital heart disease. Congenit Heart Dis 2018 Sep;13(5):700-705



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Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85052915659 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   19 Citations


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for neurodevelopmental (ND) delays. The purpose of this study is to compare the ND testing results of children with CHD at 2 and 4 years of age and determine if rates of ND delays change over time.

METHODS: Children with CHD completed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III) at 2 years of age, and standardized neuropsychological measures at 4 years. Scores were compared with test norms and were classified as: average (within one SD of test mean); at risk (1-2 SDs from the test mean); and delayed (>2 SD from test mean). Pearson correlations and McNemar's exact tests were performed to determine the relationship between test scores at the two times of assessment.

RESULTS: Sixty-four patients completed evaluations at 24 ± 3 months of age and 4 years of age. BSID-III cognitive and fine motor scores were correlated with preschool IQ and fine motor scores, r = .75 to .87, P < .0001. Agreement in score categories was 79% for cognitive and 61% for fine motor. More patients had at risk or delayed scores at age 4 vs age 2 (P ≤ .01).

CONCLUSION(S): Despite significant correlations between 2- and 4-year-old test scores, many patients who scored in the average range at age 2 showed deficits at age 4. BSID-III scores at age 2 may underestimate delays. Therefore, longitudinal ND assessment is recommended.

Author List

Brosig CL, Bear L, Allen S, Simpson P, Zhang L, Frommelt M, Mussatto KA


Laurel M. Bear MD Associate Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Cheryl L. Brosig Soto PhD Chief, Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Kathleen Mussatto Ph.D. Associate Professor in the School of Nursing department at Milwaukee School of Engineering
Pippa M. Simpson PhD Adjunct Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Child Development
Child, Preschool
Developmental Disabilities
Heart Defects, Congenital
Neuropsychological Tests
Retrospective Studies