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Nuts and bolts of 4D-MRI for radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol 2018 10 23;63(21):21TR01



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85055175748   71 Citations


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the radiotherapy workflow because of its superior soft tissue contrast and high flexibility in contrast. In addition to anatomical and functional imaging, MRI can also be used to characterize the physiologically induced motion of both the tumor and organs-at-risk. Respiratory-correlated 4D-MRI has gained large interest as an alternative to 4D-CT for the characterization of respiratory motion throughout the thorax and abdomen. These 4D-MRI data sets consist of three spatial dimensions and the respiratory phase or amplitude over the fourth dimension (opposed to time-resolved 4D-MRI that represents time in the fourth dimension). Over the last 15 years numerous methods have been presented in literature. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the various 4D-MRI techniques, and describes the differences in MRI data acquisition and 4D data set generation from a methodological point of view. The current status and future perspective of these techniques are highlighted, and the requirements for safe introduction into the clinic (e.g. method validation) are discussed.

Author List

Stemkens B, Paulson ES, Tijssen RHN


Eric Paulson PhD Associate Professor in the Radiation Oncology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques