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Tissue and fluid penetration of garenoxacin in surgical patients. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2007 Apr;8(2):179-88



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-34247189628   5 Citations


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Garenoxacin is a novel des-F(6)-quinolone that exhibits broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic pathogens of clinical importance. This study examined the penetration of garenoxacin into sinus mucosa, incisional skin, subcutaneous tissue, bile, adipose tissue, striated muscle, bone, gallbladder wall, liver, small and large bowel mucosa, and mesenteric lymph nodes relative to the plasma concentration after an oral 600 mg dose.

METHODS: A series of 30 patients, ages 20 to 83 years, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Patients received a single 600 mg oral dose of garenoxacin before surgery. Blood and tissue specimens were collected at surgery 3-5 h post-dose, and garenoxacin concentrations were determined using validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assays designed specifically for each tissue and biofluid.

RESULTS: The mean plasma or bile (mcg/mL) and tissue (mcg/g) concentrations ( +/- standard deviation) were plasma 5.71 +/- 3.44, bile 7.59 +/- 9.96, adipose tissue 0.90 +/- 0.54, subcutaneous tissue 1.19 +/- 1.23, incisional skin 3.06 +/- 1.74, striated muscle 3.92 +/- 2.54, bone 2.82 +/- 2.42, sinus mucosa 5.26 +/- 3.84, liver 1.84 +/- 0.75, gallbladder 11.59 +/- 11.94, large intestine 12.13 +/- 9.34, small intestine 15.66 +/- 19.20, and mesenteric lymph node 3.10 +/- 2.44.

CONCLUSION: After a single 600 mg oral dose, garenoxacin penetrates well into selected tissues and fluids. In addition, the tissue and fluid concentrations at 3-5 hours post-dose exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration-90% of most targeted pathogens, suggesting that garenoxacin would be effective in the treatment of sinus, skin and skin structure, and intra-abdominal infections.

Author List

Edmiston CE, Krepel CJ, Seabrook GR, Towne JB, Smith TL, Loehrl TA, Wackym PA, Johnson CP, Otterson MF, Gajjar DA, Krishna G


Christopher P. Johnson MD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Todd A. Loehrl MD Professor in the Otolaryngology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mary F. Otterson MD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Gary R. Seabrook MD Chief, Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adipose Tissue
Administration, Oral
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Infective Agents
Bone and Bones
Clinical Trials as Topic
Digestive System
Elective Surgical Procedures
Lymph Nodes
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures
Tissue Distribution
jenkins-FCD Prod-468 69a93cef3257f26b866d455c1d2b2d0f28382f14