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Conserved Gammaherpesvirus Protein Kinase Selectively Promotes Irrelevant B Cell Responses. J Virol 2019 Apr 15;93(8)

Date

02/08/2019

Pubmed ID

30728267

Pubmed Central ID

PMC6450124

DOI

10.1128/JVI.01760-18

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85064240079

Abstract

Gammaherpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that are associated with B cell lymphomas. In the early stages of chronic infection, these viruses infect naive B cells and subsequently usurp the B cell differentiation process through the germinal center response to ensure latent infection of long-lived memory B cells. A unique feature of early gammaherpesvirus chronic infection is a robust differentiation of irrelevant, virus-nonspecific B cells with reactivities against self-antigens and antigens of other species. In contrast, protective, virus-specific humoral responses do not reach peak levels until a much later time. While several host factors are known to either promote or selectively restrict gammaherpesvirus-driven germinal center response, viral mechanisms that contribute to the irrelevant B cell response have not been defined. In this report we show that the expression and the enzymatic activity of the gammaherpesvirus-encoded conserved protein kinase selectively facilitates the irrelevant, but not virus-specific, B cell responses. Further, we show that lack of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor attenuates gammaherpesvirus-driven B cell differentiation and viral reactivation. Because germinal center B cells are thought to be the target of malignant transformation during gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphomagenesis, identification of host and viral factors that promote germinal center responses during gammaherpesvirus infection may offer an insight into the mechanism of gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. Gammaherpesviruses are ubiquitous cancer-associated pathogens that usurp the B cell differentiation process to establish life-long latent infection in memory B cells. A unique feature of early gammaherpesvirus infection is the robust increase in differentiation of B cells that are not specific for viral antigens and instead encode antibodies that react with self-antigens and antigens of other species. Viral mechanisms that are involved in driving such irrelevant B cell differentiation are not known. Here, we show that gammaherpesvirus-encoded conserved protein kinase and host IL-1 signaling promote irrelevant B cell responses and gammaherpesvirus-driven germinal center responses, with the latter thought to be the target of viral transformation.

Author List

Darrah EJ, Jondle CN, Johnson KE, Xin G, Lange PT, Cui W, Olteanu H, Tarakanova VL

Authors

Weiguo Cui PhD Associate Professor in the Microbiology and Immunology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Vera Tarakanova PhD Associate Professor in the Microbiology and Immunology department at Medical College of Wisconsin




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