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A computational fluid dynamics approach to assess interhuman variability in hydrogen sulfide nasal dosimetry. Inhal Toxicol 2010 Mar;22(4):277-86

Date

01/13/2010

Pubmed ID

20064104

DOI

10.3109/08958370903278077

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-77149161402   22 Citations

Abstract

Human exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) gas occurs from natural and industrial sources and can result in dose-related neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular effects. Olfactory neuronal loss in H(2)S-exposed rats has been used to develop occupational and environmental exposure limits. Using nasal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, a correlation was found between wall mass flux and olfactory neuronal loss in rodents, suggesting an influence of airflow patterns on lesion locations that may affect interspecies extrapolation of inhaled dose. Human nasal anatomy varies considerably within a population, potentially affecting airflow patterns and dosimetry of inhaled gases. This study investigates interhuman variability of H(2)S nasal dosimetry using anatomically accurate CFD models of the nasal passages of five adults and two children generated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan data. Using allometrically equivalent breathing rates, steady-state inspiratory airflow and H(2)S uptake were simulated. Approximate locations of olfactory epithelium were mapped in each model to compare air:tissue flux in the olfactory region among individuals. The fraction of total airflow to the olfactory region ranged from 2% to 16%. Despite this wide range in olfactory airflow, H(2)S dosimetry in the olfactory region was predicted to be similar among individuals. Differences in the 99 th percentile and average flux values were <1.2-fold at inhaled concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 ppm. These preliminary results suggest that differences in nasal anatomy and ventilation among adults and children do not have a significant effect on H(2)S dosimetry in the olfactory region.

Author List

Schroeter JD, Garcia GJ, Kimbell JS

Author

Guilherme Garcia PhD Assistant Professor in the Biomedical Engineering department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adult
Air Pollutants
Algorithms
Child
Cohort Studies
Computer Simulation
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Humans
Hydrogen Sulfide
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Kinetics
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Models, Statistical
Nasal Mucosa
Nose
Olfactory Mucosa
Respiratory Mechanics
jenkins-FCD Prod-482 91ad8a360b6da540234915ea01ff80e38bfdb40a