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Age-related changes in the ability of hypothermia and cardioplegia to protect ischemic rabbit myocardium. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1988 Nov;96(5):717-24



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-0023701072   48 Citations


Hypothermia combined with pharmacologic cardioplegia protects the globally ischemic adult heart, but this benefit may not extend to children; poor postischemic recovery of function and increased mortality may result when this method of myocardial protection is used in children. The relative susceptibilities to ischemia-induced injury modified by hypothermia alone and by hypothermia plus cardioplegia were assessed in isolated perfused immature (7- to 10-day-old) and mature (6- to 24-month-old) rabbit hearts. Hearts were perfused aerobically with Krebs-Henseleit buffer in the working mode for 30 minutes, and aortic flow was recorded. This was followed by 3 minutes of hypothermic (14 degrees C) coronary perfusion with either Krebs or St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution No. 2, followed by hypothermic (14 degrees C) global ischemia (mature hearts 2 and 4 hours; immature hearts 2, 4, and 6 hours). Hearts were reperfused for 15 minutes in the Langendorff mode and 30 minutes in the working mode, and recovery of postischemic function was measured. Hypothermia alone provided excellent protection of the ischemic immature rabbit heart, with recovery of aortic flow after 2 and 4 hours of ischemia at 97% +/- 3% and 93% +/- 4% (mean +/- standard deviation) of the preischemic value. Mature hearts protected with hypothermia alone recovered only minimally, with 22% +/- 16% recovery of preischemic aortic flow after 2 hours; none were able to generate flow at 4 hours. St. Thomas' Hospital solution No. 2 improved postischemic recovery of aortic flow after 2 hours of ischemia in mature hearts from 22% +/- 16% to 65% +/- 6% (p less than 0.05), but actually decreased postischemic aortic flow in immature hearts from 97% +/- 3% to 86% +/- 10% (p less than 0.05). To investigate any dose-dependency of this effect, we subjected hearts from both age groups to reperfusion with either Krebs solution or St. Thomas' Hospital solution No. 2 for 3 minutes every 30 minutes throughout a 2-hour period of ischemia. Reexposure to Krebs solution during ischemia did not affect postischemic function in either age group. Reexposure of immature hearts to St. Thomas' Hospital solution No. 2 caused a decremental loss of postischemic function in contrast to incremental protection with multidose cardioplegia in the mature heart. We conclude that immature rabbit hearts are significantly more tolerant of ischemic injury than mature rabbit hearts and that, unexpectedly, St. Thomas' Hospital solution No. 2 damages immature rabbit hearts.

Author List

Baker JE, Boerboom LE, Olinger GN


John E. Baker PhD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Calcium Chloride
Cardioplegic Solutions
Coronary Circulation
Heart Arrest, Induced
Hypothermia, Induced
Myocardial Contraction
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Potassium Chloride
Sodium Chloride
jenkins-FCD Prod-482 91ad8a360b6da540234915ea01ff80e38bfdb40a