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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 milligrams and various doses of metronidazole in healthy adult subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004 Dec;48(12):4597-605



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-9644303233 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   23 Citations


The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 mg administered once daily combined with three different dosages of intravenous metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h [q8h], 1,000 mg q24h, and 1,500 mg q24h). Eighteen healthy adult subjects received all three combinations in a randomized, crossover fashion. Serial blood and urine samples were collected on the third day of each study period. The 24-h areas under the inhibitory (AUIC(0-24)) and bactericidal (AUBC(0-24)) curves of these three combination regimens were determined against clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, and Escherichia coli. The mean concentrations of levofloxacin were not different between study periods and were similar to those previously published. The mean (+/- standard deviation) areas under the metronidazole plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-24)) for 1,500-mg q24h (338 +/- 105 mg.h/liter) and 500-mg q8h (356 +/- 68 mg.h/liter) regimens were not different (P > 0.05), but both were significantly higher than the 1,000-mg q24h AUC(0-24) (P < 0.05, 227 +/- 57 mg.h/liter). Mean (+/- standard deviation) total body clearance and renal clearance values were similar among the 500-mg q8h, 1,000-mg q24, and 1,500-mg q24h regimens (62 +/- 7, 67 +/- 13, and 67 +/- 14 and 11 +/- 3, 12 +/- 2, and 12 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively). Levofloxacin at 750 mg q24h plus metronidazole at 500 mg q8h or 1,500 mg q24h resulted in similar AUIC(0-24) and AUBC(0-24) values with one exception: the AUIC(0-24) for the 1,500-mg q24h regimen against B. thetaiotamicron was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the other regimens. Overall, the combination of levofloxacin at 750 mg once daily and metronidazole at 500 mg q8h or 1,500 mg q24h appeared to have greater AUIC(0-24) and AUBC(0-24) values than did the 1,000-mg q24h regimen. All combination regimens of levofloxacin and metronidazole were well tolerated, and no serious drug-related adverse effects were reported. The pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacodynamic data from our study suggest that a once-daily regimen of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 mg and metronidazole at 1,500 mg warrants further clinical investigation.

Author List

Sprandel KA, Schriever CA, Pendland SL, Quinn JP, Gotfried MH, Hackett S, Graham MB, Danziger LH, Rodvold KA


Mary Beth Graham MD Associate Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Anti-Bacterial Agents
Area Under Curve
Bacteria, Anaerobic
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cross-Over Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Combinations
Escherichia coli
Injections, Intravenous
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged