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Mouse Rankl expression is regulated in T cells by c-Fos through a cluster of distal regulatory enhancers designated the T cell control region. J Biol Chem 2011 Jun 10;286(23):20880-91



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Scopus ID

2-s2.0-79958016522 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   47 Citations


Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl) is a TNF-like factor that induces the formation of osteoclasts responsible for bone resorption. Although T cell activation up-regulates this gene, the molecular mechanism of its transcriptional control remains unknown. We used ChIP-chip analysis in mouse primary T cells and a T cell hybridoma to define the regulatory enhancers responsible for this up-regulation and to characterize their properties. Elevated H3/H4 acetylation and increased RNA polymerase II density were evident at mRL-D5, a known enhancer located 76 kb upstream of the TSS, as well as at a cluster of regulatory sites located even further upstream between -123 to -156 kb, termed the T cell control region (TCCR). Based upon the ability of calcium signaling and MAPK inhibitors to block Rankl expression, we conducted further ChIP-chip analysis of the transcriptional mediators c-Fos, NF-κB, and Nfat. T cell activation induced c-Fos binding at the mRL-D5 enhancer and within the TCCR. The interaction of NF-κB was observed at the transcriptional start site and at mRL-D5. Both mRL-D5 and segments of the TCCR exhibited robust transcriptional activity in reporter assays, and site-specific mutagenesis of c-Fos and Nfat elements abrogated reporter activity, suggesting a role for both factors in the control of enhancer-mediated Rankl transcription. Finally, chromosome conformation capture analysis confirmed that mRL-D5 and segments of the TCCR were located in proximity to the Rankl gene promoter and thus potentially able to influence directly Rankl gene promoter activity. We conclude that both mRL-D5 and the TCCR represent control segments that play an integral role in Rankl expression in T cells.

Author List

Bishop KA, Coy HM, Nerenz RD, Meyer MB, Pike JW


Robert D. Nerenz PhD Associate Professor in the Pathology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Calcium Signaling
Gene Expression Regulation
Jurkat Cells
NF-kappa B
NFATC Transcription Factors
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
RANK Ligand
RNA Polymerase II
Response Elements