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Inhibiting protease-activated receptor 4 limits myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts by unmasking adenosine signaling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008 Mar;324(3):1045-54



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2-s2.0-40849113307   42 Citations


Harnessing endogenous cardioprotectants is a novel therapeutic strategy to combat ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thrombin causes I/R injury, whereas exogenous adenosine prevents I/R injury. We hypothesized that blocking thrombin receptor activation with a protease-activated receptor (PAR) 4 antagonist would unmask the cardioprotective effects of endogenous adenosine. The protective role of two structurally unrelated PAR4 antagonists, trans-cinnamoyl-YPGKF-amide (tc-Y-NH(2)) and palmitoyl-SGRRYGHALR-amide (P4pal10), were evaluated in two rat models of myocardial I/R injury. P4pal10 (10 microg/kg) treatment before ischemia significantly decreased infarct size (IS) by 31, 21, and 19% when given before, during, and after ischemia in the in vivo model. tc-Y-NH(2) (5 microM) treatment before ischemia decreased IS by 51% in the in vitro model and increased recovery of ventricular function by 26%. To assess whether the cardioprotective effects of PAR4 blockade were due to endogenous adenosine, isolated hearts were treated with a nonselective adenosine receptor blocker, 8-sulfaphenyltheophylline (8-SPT), and tc-Y-NH(2) before ischemia. 8-SPT abolished the protective effects of tc-Y-NH(2) but did not affect IS when given alone. Adenosine-mediated survival pathways were then explored. The cardioprotective effects of tc-Y-NH(2) were abolished by inhibition of Akt (wortmannin), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 [PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone)], nitric-oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMA)], and K(ATP) channels (glibenclamide). PD98059, l-NMA, and glibenclamide alone had no effect on cardioprotection in vitro. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels [5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD)] and sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels (sodium (5-(2-(5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamido)ethyl)-2-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)(methylcarbamothioyl)amide; HMR 1098) abolished P4pal10-induced cardioprotection in vivo. Thrombin receptor blockade by PAR4 inhibition provides protection against injury from myocardial I/R by unmasking adenosine receptor signaling and supports the hypothesis of a coupling between thrombin receptors and adenosine receptors.

Author List

Strande JL, Hsu A, Su J, Fu X, Gross GJ, Baker JE


John E. Baker PhD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Cardiotonic Agents
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Receptors, Thrombin
Signal Transduction
jenkins-FCD Prod-482 91ad8a360b6da540234915ea01ff80e38bfdb40a