Medical College of Wisconsin
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Xiaowen Bai PhD

Xiaowen Bai PhD

Associate Professor

Institution: Medical College of Wisconsin
Department: Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy
Program: Neurosciences

Member of the Cancer Center
Member of the Cardiovascular Center
Member of the Neuroscience Research Center


  • Microarray analysis of long non-coding RNA and mRNA expression profiles in diabetic cardiomyopathy using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. (Pant T, Mishra MK, Bai X, Ge ZD, Bosnjak ZJ, Dhanasekaran A) Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018 Nov 28:1479164118813888 PMID: 30482051 11/30/2018    
  • Current status and strategies of long noncoding RNA research for diabetic cardiomyopathy. (Pant T, Dhanasekaran A, Fang J, Bai X, Bosnjak ZJ, Liang M, Ge ZD) BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 Oct 20;18(1):197 PMID: 30342478 PMCID: PMC6196023 10/22/2018    
  • Propofol Alters Long Non-Coding RNA Profiles in the Neonatal Mouse Hippocampus: Implication of Novel Mechanisms in Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity. (Logan S, Jiang C, Yan Y, Inagaki Y, Arzua T, Bai X) Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;49(6):2496-2510 PMID: 30261491 PMCID: PMC6221186 09/28/2018    
  • Signaling network between the dysregulated expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in propofol-induced developmental neurotoxicity in mice. (Jiang C, Logan S, Yan Y, Inagaki Y, Arzua T, Ma P, Lu S, Bosnjak ZJ, Bai X) Sci Rep 2018 Sep 21;8(1):14172 PMID: 30242182 PMCID: PMC6155049 09/23/2018    
  • Book review for "Anesthesia and Neurotoxicity" (Bai X) Anesthesia & Analgesia 2018 127(2):e16 08/06/2018    
  • Failure of Isoflurane Cardiac Preconditioning in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice Involves Aberrant Regulation of MicroRNA-21, Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase, and Mitochondrial Complex I. (Ge ZD, Li Y, Qiao S, Bai X, Warltier DC, Kersten JR, Bosnjak ZJ, Liang M) Anesthesiology 2018 01;128(1):117-129 PMID: 29040168 PMCID: PMC5726897 10/19/2017       2 Citations
  • Propofol Induces Apoptosis of Neurons but Not Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, or Neural Stem Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Hippocampus. (Yan Y, Qiao S, Kikuchi C, Zaja I, Logan S, Jiang C, Arzua T, Bai X) Brain Sci 2017 Oct 14;7(10) PMID: 29036908 PMCID: PMC5664057 10/19/2017    
  • Insufficient Astrocyte-Derived Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Contributes to Propofol-Induced Neuron Death Through Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β/Mitochondrial Fission Pathway. (Liu Y, Yan Y, Inagaki Y, Logan S, Bosnjak ZJ, Bai X) Anesth Analg 2017 07;125(1):241-254 PMID: 28622174 PMCID: PMC5484590 06/18/2017       4 Citations
  • Inhibition of neuropathic hyperalgesia by intrathecal bone marrow stromal cells is associated with alteration of multiple soluble factors in cerebrospinal fluid. (Fischer G, Wang F, Xiang H, Bai X, Yu H, Hogan QH) Exp Brain Res 2017 09;235(9):2627-2638 PMID: 28573310 06/03/2017       1 Citations
  • Recent Insights Into Molecular Mechanisms of Propofol-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity: Implications for the Protective Strategies. (Bosnjak ZJ, Logan S, Liu Y, Bai X) Anesth Analg 2016 11;123(5):1286-1296 PMID: 27551735 PMCID: PMC5073000 10/21/2016       13 Citations
  • Targeted Modification of Mitochondrial ROS Production Converts High Glucose-Induced Cytotoxicity to Cytoprotection: Effects on Anesthetic Preconditioning. (Sedlic F, Muravyeva MY, Sepac A, Sedlic M, Williams AM, Yang M, Bai X, Bosnjak ZJ) J Cell Physiol 2017 01;232(1):216-24 PMID: 27138089 PMCID: PMC5028252 05/04/2016       7 Citations
  • Transcription Profile in Sporadic Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis Reveals Differential Expression at the Level of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells. (Prantl L, Schreml J, Gehmert S, Klein S, Bai X, Zeitler K, Schreml S, Alt E, Gehmert S, Felthaus O) Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Apr;137(4):1181-90 PMID: 27018673 03/29/2016       6 Citations
  • High Glucose Attenuates Anesthetic Cardioprotection in Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Fission. (Canfield SG, Zaja I, Godshaw B, Twaroski D, Bai X, Bosnjak ZJ) Anesth Analg 2016 May;122(5):1269-79 PMID: 26991754 PMCID: PMC5189917 03/19/2016       8 Citations
  • Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics Contributes to Propofol-induced Cell Death in Human Stem Cell-derived Neurons. (Twaroski DM, Yan Y, Zaja I, Clark E, Bosnjak ZJ, Bai X) Anesthesiology 2015 Nov;123(5):1067-83 PMID: 26352374 PMCID: PMC4632973 09/10/2015       21 Citations
  • MicroRNAs: New Players in Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity. (Twaroski D, Bosnjak ZJ, Bai X) Pharm Anal Acta 2015;6:357 PMID: 26146587 PMCID: PMC4486668 07/07/2015    
  • Analgesia for neuropathic pain by dorsal root ganglion transplantation of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells: initial results. (Yu H, Fischer G, Ebert AD, Wu HE, Bai X, Hogan QH) Mol Pain 2015 Feb 12;11:5 PMID: 25888914 PMCID: PMC4331376 04/19/2015       11 Citations
  • Analgesia for neuropathic pain by dorsal root ganglion transplantation of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells: initial results. (Yu H, Fischer G, Ebert AD, Wu HE, Bai X, Hogan QH) Mol Pain 2015 Dec;11(1):2 PMID: 25775959 03/18/2015    
  • Comparison of Cardiomyocyte Differentiation Potential Between Type 1 Diabetic Donor- and Nondiabetic Donor-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. (Kikuchi C, Bienengraeber M, Canfield S, Koopmeiner A, Schäfer R, Bosnjak ZJ, Bai X) Cell Transplant 2015;24(12):2491-504 PMID: 25562386 PMCID: PMC4627864 01/07/2015       5 Citations
  • Up-regulation of microRNA-21 mediates isoflurane-induced protection of cardiomyocytes. (Olson JM, Yan Y, Bai X, Ge ZD, Liang M, Kriegel AJ, Twaroski DM, Bosnjak ZJ) Anesthesiology 2015 Apr;122(4):795-805 PMID: 25536091 PMCID: PMC4366274 12/24/2014       18 Citations
  • EGF is required for cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells through interaction with GATA-4 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (Ma CX, Song YL, Xiao L, Xue LX, Li WJ, Laforest B, Komati H, Wang WP, Jia ZQ, Zhou CY, Zou Y, Nemer M, Zhang SF, Bai X, Wu H, Zang MX) Cell Mol Life Sci 2015 May;72(10):2005-22 PMID: 25504289 12/17/2014       4 Citations
  • Cdk1, PKCδ and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathway contributes to mitochondrial fission-induced cardiomyocyte death. (Zaja I, Bai X, Liu Y, Kikuchi C, Dosenovic S, Yan Y, Canfield SG, Bosnjak ZJ) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Oct 31;453(4):710-21 PMID: 25445585 PMCID: PMC4312217 12/03/2014       36 Citations
  • miR-21 in ischemia/reperfusion injury: a double-edged sword? (Xu X, Kriegel AJ, Jiao X, Liu H, Bai X, Olson J, Liang M, Ding X) Physiol Genomics 2014 Nov 01;46(21):789-97 PMID: 25159851 PMCID: PMC4280148 08/28/2014       37 Citations
  • Emerging model in anesthetic developmental neurotoxicity: human stem cells. (Bai X, Bosnjak ZJ) Int J Clin Anesthesiol 2013 Jul;1:1002 PMID: 24971394 PMCID: PMC4068347 06/28/2014    
  • Down-regulation of microRNA-21 is involved in the propofol-induced neurotoxicity observed in human stem cell-derived neurons. (Twaroski DM, Yan Y, Olson JM, Bosnjak ZJ, Bai X) Anesthesiology 2014 Oct;121(4):786-800 PMID: 24950164 PMCID: PMC4174986 06/21/2014       36 Citations
  • Modeling anesthetic developmental neurotoxicity using human stem cells. (Bai X, Twaroski D, Bosnjak ZJ) Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013 Dec;17(4):276-87 PMID: 23859832 PMCID: PMC3830670 07/19/2013       15 Citations
  • Ketamine enhances human neural stem cell proliferation and induces neuronal apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway. (Bai X, Yan Y, Canfield S, Muravyeva MY, Kikuchi C, Zaja I, Corbett JA, Bosnjak ZJ) Anesth Analg 2013 Apr;116(4):869-80 PMID: 23460563 PMCID: PMC3606677 03/06/2013       89 Citations
  • Myocardial regeneration of adipose tissue-derived stem cells: differentiation and paracrine mechanisms (Bai X, Bosnjak Z.) Stem Cell and Cancer Stem Cells 2012. 10/03/2012    
  • Ketamine induces toxicity in human neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells via mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (Bosnjak ZJ, Yan Y, Canfield S, Muravyeva MY, Kikuchi C, Wells CW, Corbett JA, Bai X) Curr Drug Saf 2012 Apr;7(2):106-19 PMID: 22873495 PMCID: PMC3684944 08/10/2012       33 Citations
  • Marked hyperglycemia attenuates anesthetic preconditioning in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. (Canfield SG, Sepac A, Sedlic F, Muravyeva MY, Bai X, Bosnjak ZJ) Anesthesiology 2012 Oct;117(4):735-44 PMID: 22820846 PMCID: PMC3459588 07/24/2012       21 Citations
  • Limitation of in vivo models investigating angiogenesis in breast cancer. (Gehmert S, Gehmert S, Bai X, Klein S, Ortmann O, Prantl L) Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2011;49(1-4):519-26 PMID: 22214723 01/05/2012       11 Citations
  • Fibroblasts share mesenchymal phenotypes with stem cells, but lack their differentiation and colony-forming potential. (Alt E, Yan Y, Gehmert S, Song YH, Altman A, Gehmert S, Vykoukal D, Bai X) Biol Cell 2011 Apr;103(4):197-208 PMID: 21332447 02/22/2011       65 Citations
  • Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells exhibit proliferation potential and spontaneous rhythmic contraction after fusion with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. (Metzele R, Alt C, Bai X, Yan Y, Zhang Z, Pan Z, Coleman M, Vykoukal J, Song YH, Alt E) FASEB J 2011 Mar;25(3):830-9 PMID: 21059751 PMCID: PMC3470720 11/10/2010       30 Citations
  • Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. (Bai X, Alt E) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Oct 22;401(3):321-6 PMID: 20833143 09/14/2010       55 Citations
  • Tracking long-term survival of intramyocardially delivered human adipose tissue-derived stem cells using bioluminescence imaging. (Bai X, Yan Y, Coleman M, Wu G, Rabinovich B, Seidensticker M, Alt E) Mol Imaging Biol 2011 Aug;13(4):633-45 PMID: 20730500 08/24/2010       48 Citations
  • Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by targeting APC-deficient cells for apoptosis. (Zhang L, Ren X, Alt E, Bai X, Huang S, Xu Z, Lynch PM, Moyer MP, Wen XF, Wu X) Nature 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1058-61 PMID: 20348907 PMCID: PMC3425353 03/30/2010       107 Citations
  • Both cultured and freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived stem cells enhance cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction. (Bai X, Yan Y, Song YH, Seidensticker M, Rabinovich B, Metzele R, Bankson JA, Vykoukal D, Alt E) Eur Heart J 2010 Feb;31(4):489-501 PMID: 20037143 12/29/2009       140 Citations
  • Advances in the study of CDMP1 (Bai X, Lu S) Medical Recapitulate 2008; 13 10/20/2008    
  • IFATS collection: Human adipose-derived stem cells seeded on a silk fibroin-chitosan scaffold enhance wound repair in a murine soft tissue injury model. (Altman AM, Yan Y, Matthias N, Bai X, Rios C, Mathur AB, Song YH, Alt EU) Stem Cells 2009 Jan;27(1):250-8 PMID: 18818439 09/27/2008       157 Citations
  • Liposome-mediated transfection with extract from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induces transdifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into cardiomyocytes. (Schimrosczyk K, Song YH, Vykoukal J, Vykoukal D, Bai X, Coleman M, Krohn A, Freyberg S, Alt EU) Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2008;68(6):464-72 PMID: 18609095 07/09/2008       8 Citations
  • Dermal matrix as a carrier for in vivo delivery of human adipose-derived stem cells. (Altman AM, Matthias N, Yan Y, Song YH, Bai X, Chiu ES, Slakey DP, Alt EU) Biomaterials 2008 Apr;29(10):1431-42 PMID: 18191190 01/15/2008       113 Citations
  • Intracoronary administration of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells improves left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodelling after acute myocardial infarction. (Valina C, Pinkernell K, Song YH, Bai X, Sadat S, Campeau RJ, Le Jemtel TH, Alt E) Eur Heart J 2007 Nov;28(21):2667-77 PMID: 17933755 10/16/2007       280 Citations
  • The cardioprotective effect of mesenchymal stem cells is mediated by IGF-I and VEGF. (Sadat S, Gehmert S, Song YH, Yen Y, Bai X, Gaiser S, Klein H, Alt E) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Nov 23;363(3):674-9 PMID: 17904522 10/02/2007       227 Citations
  • VEGF receptor Flk-1 plays an important role in c-kit expression in adipose tissue derived stem cells. (Bai X, Sadat S, Gehmert S, Alt E, Song YH) FEBS Lett 2007 Oct 02;581(24):4681-4 PMID: 17850794 09/14/2007       25 Citations
  • Electrophysiological properties of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. (Bai X, Ma J, Pan Z, Song YH, Freyberg S, Yan Y, Vykoukal D, Alt E) Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2007 Nov;293(5):C1539-50 PMID: 17687001 08/10/2007       69 Citations
  • Novel mutations of cathepsin C gene in two Chinese patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. (Yang Y, Bai X, Liu H, Li L, Cao C, Ge L) J Dent Res 2007 Aug;86(8):735-8 PMID: 17652201 07/27/2007       7 Citations
  • [Multilineage potential of pulp stem cells from human young permanent teeth in vitro]. (Liu HS, Bai XW, Yang Y, Ge LH) Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2007 Feb 18;39(1):41-5 PMID: 17304325 02/17/2007    
  • VEGF is critical for spontaneous differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes. (Song YH, Gehmert S, Sadat S, Pinkernell K, Bai X, Matthias N, Alt E) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 23;354(4):999-1003 PMID: 17276389 02/06/2007       101 Citations
  • Genetically selected stem cells from human adipose tissue express cardiac markers. (Bai X, Pinkernell K, Song YH, Nabzdyk C, Reiser J, Alt E) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Feb 16;353(3):665-71 PMID: 17196165 01/02/2007       57 Citations
  • [Novel mutations of cathepsin C gene in two Chinese patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome]. (Yang Y, Bai XW, Liu HS, Cao CF, Ge LH) Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2006 Oct;41(10):602-5 PMID: 17129448 11/30/2006       2 Citations
  • Chondrogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells in vitro (Bai X, Yan S, Liu H, Yang Y) Clinic J Orthop Trauma 2005; 7(5):1 10/20/2005    
  • Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis. (Yang Y, Bai XW, Song SJ, Ge LH, Cao CF) Chin Med J (Engl) 2005 Jul 05;118(13):1109-12 PMID: 16098265 08/16/2005       1 Citations
  • In vitro neuronal differentiation of cultured human embryonic germ cells. (Pan Y, Chen X, Wang S, Yang S, Bai X, Chi X, Li K, Liu B, Li L) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005 Feb 11;327(2):548-56 PMID: 15629148 01/05/2005       23 Citations
  • Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 promotes the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes. (Bai X, Xiao Z, Pan Y, Hu J, Pohl J, Wen J, Li L) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Dec 10;325(2):453-60 PMID: 15530414 11/09/2004       71 Citations
  • Research in repairing articular cartilage lesions with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bai X, Li L) Chinese Journal of Rheumatology 2004; 9 10/20/2004    
  • Effect of low selenium on cartilage collagen metabolism (Bai X, Ling L) Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 2000; 152:93-4 10/20/2000    
  • Extraction and purification of type x collagen from growth plate of tibiatarsi in chicks (Bai L, Bai X, Bai C, Lu S. ) Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 1999; 44-5 11/01/1999    
  • Effect of T-2 toxin on epiphyseal cartilage of tibiatarsi in chicks: histomorphological observations (Bai X, Lu S, Bai C. ) Medical Recapitulate 1996; 113: 149-50 10/20/1996    
  • Last update: 12/01/2018
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