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Cecilia J. Hillard PhD

Cecilia J. Hillard PhD

Center Director, Professor

Institution: Medical College of Wisconsin
Department: Pharmacology and Toxicology
Program: Pharmacology


Research Experience

  • Anxiety
  • Cannabinoids
  • Depression
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Models, Animal
  • Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1
  • Receptors, Cannabinoid
  • Stress
  • Publications

  • Sterol Carrier Protein-2: Binding Protein for Endocannabinoids. (Liedhegner ES, Vogt CD, Sem DS, Cunningham CW, Hillard CJ) Mol Neurobiol 2014 Feb 9: PMID 24510313
  • Endocannabinoid signaling in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis recovery following stress: effects of indirect agonists and comparison of male and female mice. (Roberts CJ, Stuhr KL, Hutz MJ, Raff H, Hillard CJ) Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2014 Feb;117:17-24 PMID 24316201
  • Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Etiology and Treatment of Major Depressive Illness. (Hillard CJ, Liu QS) Curr Pharm Des 2013 Oct 28: PMID 24180398
  • Brain region-specific changes in N-acylethanolamine contents with time of day. (Liedhegner ES, Sasman A, Hillard CJ) J Neurochem 2014 Feb;128(4):491-506 PMID 24138639
  • Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid levels in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder following exposure to the World Trade Center attacks. (Hill MN, Bierer LM, Makotkine I, Golier JA, Galea S, McEwen BS, Hillard CJ, Yehuda R) Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013 Dec;38(12):2952-61 PMID 24035186
  • Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors. (Pazos MR, Mohammed N, Lafuente H, Santos M, Martínez-Pinilla E, Moreno E, Valdizan E, Romero J, Pazos A, Franco R, Hillard CJ, Alvarez FJ, Martínez-Orgado J) Neuropharmacology 2013 Aug;71:282-91 PMID 23587650
  • Upregulation of CB₁ receptor binding in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex promotes proactive stress-coping strategies following chronic stress exposure. (McLaughlin RJ, Hill MN, Dang SS, Wainwright SR, Galea LA, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Behav Brain Res 2013 Jan 15;237:333-7 PMID 23047058
  • Temporal changes in N-acylethanolamine content and metabolism throughout the peri-adolescent period. (Lee TT, Hill MN, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Synapse 2013 Jan;67(1):4-10 PMID 22987804
  • Disruption of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity prevents the effects of chronic stress on anxiety and amygdalar microstructure. (Hill MN, Kumar SA, Filipski SB, Iverson M, Stuhr KL, Keith JM, Cravatt BF, Hillard CJ, Chattarji S, McEwen BS) Mol Psychiatry 2013 Oct;18(10):1125-35 PMID 22776900
  • Acute stress increases circulating anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines in healthy humans. (Dlugos A, Childs E, Stuhr KL, Hillard CJ, de Wit H) Neuropsychopharmacology 2012 Oct;37(11):2416-27 PMID 22763622
  • Circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal in women. (Klein C, Hill MN, Chang SC, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) J Sex Med 2012 Jun;9(6):1588-601 PMID 22462722
  • Serum contents of endocannabinoids are correlated with blood pressure in depressed women. (Ho WS, Hill MN, Miller GE, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:32 PMID 22373123
  • Prefrontal cortical anandamide signaling coordinates coping responses to stress through a serotonergic pathway. (McLaughlin RJ, Hill MN, Bambico FR, Stuhr KL, Gobbi G, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2012 Sep;22(9):664-71 PMID 22325231
  • Swim stress differentially affects limbic contents of 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 2-oleoylglycerol. (Roberts CJ, Stuhr KL, Hillard CJ) Neuroscience 2012 Mar 1;204:74-82 PMID 22192839
  • Contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to psychiatric disorders in humans: genetic and biochemical evidence. (Hillard CJ, Weinlander KM, Stuhr KL) Neuroscience 2012 Mar 1;204:207-29 PMID 22123166
  • Chronic, noninvasive glucocorticoid administration suppresses limbic endocannabinoid signaling in mice. (Bowles NP, Hill MN, Bhagat SM, Karatsoreos IN, Hillard CJ, McEwen BS) Neuroscience 2012 Mar 1;204:83-9 PMID 21939741
  • Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation. (Wang M, Hill MN, Zhang L, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ, Alger BE) J Psychopharmacol 2012 Jan;26(1):56-70 PMID 21890595
  • Cannabinoid receptor involvement in stress-induced cocaine reinstatement: potential interaction with noradrenergic pathways. (Vaughn LK, Mantsch JR, Vranjkovic O, Stroh G, Lacourt M, Kreutter M, Hillard CJ) Neuroscience 2012 Mar 1;204:117-24 PMID 21871539
  • Recruitment of prefrontal cortical endocannabinoid signaling by glucocorticoids contributes to termination of the stress response. (Hill MN, McLaughlin RJ, Pan B, Fitzgerald ML, Roberts CJ, Lee TT, Karatsoreos IN, Mackie K, Viau V, Pickel VM, McEwen BS, Liu QS, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) J Neurosci 2011 Jul 20;31(29):10506-15 PMID 21775596
  • Alterations in corticolimbic dendritic morphology and emotional behavior in cannabinoid CB1 receptor-deficient mice parallel the effects of chronic stress. (Hill MN, Hillard CJ, McEwen BS) Cereb Cortex 2011 Sep;21(9):2056-64 PMID 21263035
  • Natural and synthetic corticosteroids inhibit uptake 2-mediated transport in CNS neurons. (Hill JE, Makky K, Shrestha L, Hillard CJ, Gasser PJ) Physiol Behav 2011 Aug 3;104(2):306-11 PMID 21081135
  • Sex difference in cell proliferation in developing rat amygdala mediated by endocannabinoids has implications for social behavior. (Krebs-Kraft DL, Hill MN, Hillard CJ, McCarthy MM) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Nov 23;107(47):20535-40 PMID 21059913
  • Neuroprotection by a mitochondria-targeted drug in a Parkinson's disease model. (Ghosh A, Chandran K, Kalivendi SV, Joseph J, Antholine WE, Hillard CJ, Kanthasamy A, Kanthasamy A, Kalyanaraman B) Free Radic Biol Med 2010 Dec 1;49(11):1674-84 PMID 20828611
  • Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase suppresses referred hyperalgesia induced by bladder inflammation. (Merriam FV, Wang ZY, Hillard CJ, Stuhr KL, Bjorling DE) BJU Int 2011 Oct;108(7):1145-9 PMID 20804480
  • Fast feedback inhibition of the HPA axis by glucocorticoids is mediated by endocannabinoid signaling. (Evanson NK, Tasker JG, Hill MN, Hillard CJ, Herman JP) Endocrinology 2010 Oct;151(10):4811-9 PMID 20702575
  • Deficiency in endocannabinoid signaling in the nucleus accumbens induced by chronic unpredictable stress. (Wang W, Sun D, Pan B, Roberts CJ, Sun X, Hillard CJ, Liu QS) Neuropsychopharmacology 2010 Oct;35(11):2249-61 PMID 20664582
  • Endocannabinoid modulation of hyperaemia evoked by physiologically relevant stimuli in the rat primary somatosensory cortex. (Ho WS, Patel S, Thompson JR, Roberts CJ, Stuhr KL, Hillard CJ) Br J Pharmacol 2010 Jun;160(3):736-46 PMID 20590576
  • Endocannabinoid signalling: has it got rhythm? (Vaughn LK, Denning G, Stuhr KL, de Wit H, Hill MN, Hillard CJ) Br J Pharmacol 2010 Jun;160(3):530-43 PMID 20590563
  • Retrograde release of endocannabinoids inhibits presynaptic GABA release to second-order baroreceptive neurons in NTS. (Chen CY, Bonham AC, Dean C, Hopp FA, Hillard CJ, Seagard JL) Auton Neurosci 2010 Dec 8;158(1-2):44-50 PMID 20580326
  • Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is essential for stress adaptation. (Hill MN, McLaughlin RJ, Bingham B, Shrestha L, Lee TT, Gray JM, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB, Viau V) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 May 18;107(20):9406-11 PMID 20439721
  • Rapid elevations in limbic endocannabinoid content by glucocorticoid hormones in vivo. (Hill MN, Karatsoreos IN, Hillard CJ, McEwen BS) Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010 Oct;35(9):1333-8 PMID 20399021
  • Estrogenic regulation of limbic cannabinoid receptor binding. (Riebe CJ, Hill MN, Lee TT, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010 Sep;35(8):1265-9 PMID 20207489
  • Obesity-related dyslipidemia associated with FAAH, independent of insulin response, in multigenerational families of Northern European descent. (Zhang Y, Sonnenberg GE, Baye TM, Littrell J, Gunnell J, DeLaForest A, MacKinney E, Hillard CJ, Kissebah AH, Olivier M, Wilke RA) Pharmacogenomics 2009 Dec;10(12):1929-39 PMID 19958092
  • Oxidants induce alternative splicing of alpha-synuclein: Implications for Parkinson's disease. (Kalivendi SV, Yedlapudi D, Hillard CJ, Kalyanaraman B) Free Radic Biol Med 2010 Feb 1;48(3):377-83 PMID 19857570
  • The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for the development of a novel class of antidepressants. (Hill MN, Hillard CJ, Bambico FR, Patel S, Gorzalka BB, Gobbi G) Trends Pharmacol Sci 2009 Sep;30(9):484-93 PMID 19732971
  • Suppression of amygdalar endocannabinoid signaling by stress contributes to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (Hill MN, McLaughlin RJ, Morrish AC, Viau V, Floresco SB, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Neuropsychopharmacology 2009 Dec;34(13):2733-45 PMID 19710634
  • Blockade of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis by selective monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) Enhances retrograde endocannabinoid signaling. (Pan B, Wang W, Long JZ, Sun D, Hillard CJ, Cravatt BF, Liu QS) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009 Nov;331(2):591-7 PMID 19666749
  • Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is required for voluntary exercise-induced enhancement of progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. (Hill MN, Titterness AK, Morrish AC, Carrier EJ, Lee TT, Gil-Mohapel J, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ, Christie BR) Hippocampus 2010 Apr;20(4):513-23 PMID 19489006
  • Differential endocannabinoid regulation of baroreflex-evoked sympathoinhibition in normotensive versus hypertensive rats. (Brozoski DT, Dean C, Hopp FA, Hillard CJ, Seagard JL) Auton Neurosci 2009 Oct 5;150(1-2):82-93 PMID 19464961
  • Circulating endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines are differentially regulated in major depression and following exposure to social stress. (Hill MN, Miller GE, Carrier EJ, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009 Sep;34(8):1257-62 PMID 19394765
  • Role of endocannabinoid signaling in anxiety and depression. (Patel S, Hillard CJ) Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2009;1:347-71 PMID 21104391
  • D2 dopamine receptor activation facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synaptic transmission in midbrain dopamine neurons via cAMP-protein kinase A signaling. (Pan B, Hillard CJ, Liu QS) J Neurosci 2008 Dec 24;28(52):14018-30 PMID 19109485
  • Differential effects of the antidepressants tranylcypromine and fluoxetine on limbic cannabinoid receptor binding and endocannabinoid contents. (Hill MN et al.) J Neural Transm 2009 Feb;116(2):141 PMID 19093190
  • Genetic variation in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) is associated with derangements in lipid homeostasis, independent of body mass index. (Baye TM, Zhang Y, Smith E, Hillard CJ, Gunnell J, Myklebust J, James R, Kissebah AH, Olivier M, Wilke RA) Pharmacogenomics 2008 Nov;9(11):1647-56 PMID 19018721
  • Differential effects of the antidepressants tranylcypromine and fluoxetine on limbic cannabinoid receptor binding and endocannabinoid contents. (Hill MN, Ho WS, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) J Neural Transm 2008 Dec;115(12):1673-9 PMID 18974922
  • Role of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in cerebral ischemia. (Hillard CJ) Curr Pharm Des 2008;14(23):2347-61 PMID 18781985
  • Regional alterations in the endocannabinoid system in an animal model of depression: effects of concurrent antidepressant treatment. (Hill MN, Carrier EJ, McLaughlin RJ, Morrish AC, Meier SE, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) J Neurochem 2008 Sep;106(6):2322-36 PMID 18643796
  • Mediation of cannabidiol anti-inflammation in the retina by equilibrative nucleoside transporter and A2A adenosine receptor. (Liou GI, Auchampach JA, Hillard CJ, Zhu G, Yousufzai B, Mian S, Khan S, Khalifa Y) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008 Dec;49(12):5526-31 PMID 18641283
  • Adaptations in endocannabinoid signaling in response to repeated homotypic stress: a novel mechanism for stress habituation. (Patel S, Hillard CJ) Eur J Neurosci 2008 Jun;27(11):2821-9 PMID 18588527
  • Regulation of endocannabinoid signaling by stress: implications for stress-related affective disorders. (Gorzalka BB, Hill MN, Hillard CJ) Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2008 Aug;32(6):1152-60 PMID 18433869
  • Serum endocannabinoid content is altered in females with depressive disorders: a preliminary report. (Hill MN, Miller GE, Ho WS, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) Pharmacopsychiatry 2008 Mar;41(2):48-53 PMID 18311684
  • Endocannabinoid signaling mediates cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in midbrain dopamine neurons. (Pan B, Hillard CJ, Liu QS) J Neurosci 2008 Feb 6;28(6):1385-97 PMID 18256258
  • Characterization of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid binding site in U937 membranes using a novel radiolabeled agonist, 20-125i-14,15-epoxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid. (Yang W, Tuniki VR, Anjaiah S, Falck JR, Hillard CJ, Campbell WB) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008 Mar;324(3):1019-27 PMID 18171909
  • Glial expression of cannabinoid CB(2) receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are beta amyloid-linked events in Down's syndrome. (Núñez E, Benito C, Tolón RM, Hillard CJ, Griffin WS, Romero J) Neuroscience 2008 Jan 2;151(1):104-10 PMID 18068305
  • Prolonged glucocorticoid treatment decreases cannabinoid CB1 receptor density in the hippocampus. (Hill MN, Carrier EJ, Ho WS, Shi L, Patel S, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) Hippocampus 2008;18(2):221-6 PMID 18058925
  • Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids, lipids & lipoproteins: recommendations for future research. (Katz R, Hamilton JA, Pownall HJ, Deckelbaum RJ, Hillard CJ, Leboeuf RC, Watkins PA) J Mol Neurosci 2007 Sep;33(1):146-50 PMID 17901559
  • Studies of anandamide accumulation inhibitors in cerebellar granule neurons: comparison to inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase. (Hillard CJ, Shi L, Tuniki VR, Falck JR, Campbell WB) J Mol Neurosci 2007 Sep;33(1):18-24 PMID 17901541
  • Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids, lipids and lipoproteins: application to neurological disorders. (Hamilton JA, Hillard CJ, Spector AA, Watkins PA) J Mol Neurosci 2007 Sep;33(1):2-11 PMID 17901539
  • Inhibition of 2-arachidonoylglycerol catabolism modulates vasoconstriction of rat middle cerebral artery by the thromboxane mimetic, U-46619. (Hillard CJ, Ho WS, Thompson J, Gauthier KM, Wheelock CE, Huang H, Hammock BD) Br J Pharmacol 2007 Nov;152(5):691-8 PMID 17891162
  • Effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on endocannabinoid content in the amygdala, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex in mice. (Rademacher DJ, Meier SE, Shi L, Ho WS, Jarrahian A, Hillard CJ) Neuropharmacology 2008 Jan;54(1):108-16 PMID 17675104
  • Electroconvulsive shock treatment differentially modulates cortical and subcortical endocannabinoid activity. (Hill MN, Barr AM, Ho WS, Carrier EJ, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) J Neurochem 2007 Oct;103(1):47-56 PMID 17561935
  • Direct suppression of CNS autoimmune inflammation via the cannabinoid receptor CB1 on neurons and CB2 on autoreactive T cells. (Maresz K, Pryce G, Ponomarev ED, Marsicano G, Croxford JL, Shriver LP, Ledent C, Cheng X, Carrier EJ, Mann MK, Giovannoni G, Pertwee RG, Yamamura T, Buckley NE, Hillard CJ, Lutz B, Baker D, Dittel BN) Nat Med 2007 Apr;13(4):492-7 PMID 17401376
  • Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are specific markers of plaque cell subtypes in human multiple sclerosis. (Benito C, Romero JP, Tolón RM, Clemente D, Docagne F, Hillard CJ, Guaza C, Romero J) J Neurosci 2007 Feb 28;27(9):2396-402 PMID 17329437
  • Interactions between endocannabinoids and stress-induced decreased sensitivity to natural reward. (Rademacher DJ, Hillard CJ) Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007 Apr 13;31(3):633-41 PMID 17258369
  • Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the ability of long-term tricyclic antidepressant treatment to suppress stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (Hill MN, Ho WS, Sinopoli KJ, Viau V, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Neuropsychopharmacology 2006 Dec;31(12):2591-9 PMID 16710317
  • Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression. (Carrier EJ, Auchampach JA, Hillard CJ) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 May 16;103(20):7895-900 PMID 16672367
  • Modulators of endocannabinoid enzymic hydrolysis and membrane transport. (Ho WS, Hillard CJ) Handb Exp Pharmacol 2005(168):187-207 PMID 16596775
  • Pharmacological evaluation of cannabinoid receptor ligands in a mouse model of anxiety: further evidence for an anxiolytic role for endogenous cannabinoid signaling. (Patel S, Hillard CJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006 Jul;318(1):304-11 PMID 16569753
  • Fetomaternal cross talk in the placental vascular bed: control of coagulation by trophoblast cells. (Sood R, Kalloway S, Mast AE, Hillard CJ, Weiler H) Blood 2006 Apr 15;107(8):3173-80 PMID 16380449
  • Endocannabinoids in neuroimmunology and stress. (Carrier EJ, Patel S, Hillard CJ) Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 2005 Dec;4(6):657-65 PMID 16375683
  • Chronic corticosterone treatment increases the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol in the rat amygdala. (Hill MN, Ho WS, Meier SE, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ) Eur J Pharmacol 2005 Dec 28;528(1-3):99-102 PMID 16324692
  • Reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase-I is important in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rabbit aorta. (Tang X, Holmes BB, Nithipatikom K, Hillard CJ, Kuhn H, Campbell WB) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006 Jan;26(1):78-84 PMID 16239596
  • Sepiapterin attenuates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells transfected with neuronal NOS: role of tetrahydrobiopterin, nitric oxide, and proteasome activation. (Shang T, Kotamraju S, Zhao H, Kalivendi SV, Hillard CJ, Kalyanaraman B) Free Radic Biol Med 2005 Oct 15;39(8):1059-74 PMID 16198233
  • Modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli. (Maresz K, Carrier EJ, Ponomarev ED, Hillard CJ, Dittel BN) J Neurochem 2005 Oct;95(2):437-45 PMID 16086683
  • Death-associated protein kinase as a sensor of mitochondrial membrane potential: role of lysosome in mitochondrial toxin-induced cell death. (Shang T, Joseph J, Hillard CJ, Kalyanaraman B) J Biol Chem 2005 Oct 14;280(41):34644-53 PMID 16085644
  • Lipids and drugs of abuse. (Hillard CJ) Life Sci 2005 Aug 19;77(14):1531-42 PMID 15946699
  • Accumulation of anandamide: evidence for cellular diversity. (Hillard CJ, Jarrahian A) Neuropharmacology 2005 Jun;48(8):1072-8 PMID 15910883
  • Effects of endocannabinoids on discharge of baroreceptive NTS neurons. (Seagard JL, Hopp FA, Hillard CJ, Dean C) Neurosci Lett 2005 Jun 24;381(3):334-9 PMID 15896495
  • Inhibition of restraint stress-induced neural and behavioural activation by endogenous cannabinoid signalling. (Patel S, Roelke CT, Rademacher DJ, Hillard CJ) Eur J Neurosci 2005 Feb;21(4):1057-69 PMID 15787710
  • A glial endogenous cannabinoid system is upregulated in the brains of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus-induced encephalitis. (Benito C, Kim WK, Chavarría I, Hillard CJ, Mackie K, Tolón RM, Williams K, Romero J) J Neurosci 2005 Mar 9;25(10):2530-6 PMID 15758162
  • U-46619 but not serotonin increases endocannabinoid content in middle cerebral artery: evidence for functional relevance. (Rademacher DJ, Patel S, Ho WS, Savoie AM, Rusch NJ, Gauthier KM, Hillard CJ) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005 Jun;288(6):H2694-701 PMID 15695564
  • Characterization of phospholipase activity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III cytotoxin, ExoU. (Sato H, Feix JB, Hillard CJ, Frank DW) J Bacteriol 2005 Feb;187(3):1192-5 PMID 15659695
  • 2-arachidonoylglycerol: a novel inhibitor of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell invasion. (Nithipatikom K, Endsley MP, Isbell MA, Falck JR, Iwamoto Y, Hillard CJ, Campbell WB) Cancer Res 2004 Dec 15;64(24):8826-30 PMID 15604240
  • The postmortal accumulation of brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) is dependent upon fatty acid amide hydrolase activity. (Patel S, Carrier EJ, Ho WS, Rademacher DJ, Cunningham S, Reddy DS, Falck JR, Cravatt BF, Hillard CJ) J Lipid Res 2005 Feb;46(2):342-9 PMID 15576840
  • Anandamide content is increased and CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade is protective during transient, focal cerebral ischemia. (Muthian S, Rademacher DJ, Roelke CT, Gross GJ, Hillard CJ) Neuroscience 2004;129(3):743-50 PMID 15541895
  • Endothelium-derived 2-arachidonylglycerol: an intermediate in vasodilatory eicosanoid release in bovine coronary arteries. (Gauthier KM, Baewer DV, Hittner S, Hillard CJ, Nithipatikom K, Reddy DS, Falck JR, Campbell WB) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005 Mar;288(3):H1344-51 PMID 15528233
  • Waterborne lead exposure affects brain endocannabinoid content in male but not female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). (Rademacher DJ, Weber DN, Hillard CJ) Neurotoxicology 2005 Jan;26(1):9-15 PMID 15527869
  • Downregulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus following chronic unpredictable stress. (Hill MN, Patel S, Carrier EJ, Rademacher DJ, Ormerod BK, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB) Neuropsychopharmacology 2005 Mar;30(3):508-15 PMID 15525997
  • Spatial correlations of laminar BOLD and CBV responses to rat whisker stimulation with neuronal activity localized by Fos expression. (Lu H, Patel S, Luo F, Li SJ, Hillard CJ, Ward BD, Hyde JS) Magn Reson Med 2004 Nov;52(5):1060-8 PMID 15508149
  • Endocannabinoid signaling negatively modulates stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (Patel S, Roelke CT, Rademacher DJ, Cullinan WE, Hillard CJ) Endocrinology 2004 Dec;145(12):5431-8 PMID 15331569
  • Synergistic interactions between cannabinoids and environmental stress in the activation of the central amygdala. (Patel S, Cravatt BF, Hillard CJ) Neuropsychopharmacology 2005 Mar;30(3):497-507 PMID 15280883
  • Dendritically released transmitters cooperate via autocrine and retrograde actions to inhibit afferent excitation in rat brain. (Hirasawa M, Schwab Y, Natah S, Hillard CJ, Mackie K, Sharkey KA, Pittman QJ) J Physiol 2004 Sep 1;559(Pt 2):611-24 PMID 15254151
  • Chronic administration of nitric oxide reduces angiotensin II receptor type 1 expression and aldosterone synthesis in zona glomerulosa cells. (Nithipatikom K, Holmes BB, McCoy MJ, Hillard CJ, Campbell WB) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004 Nov;287(5):E820-7 PMID 15198935
  • Cultured rat microglial cells synthesize the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol, which increases proliferation via a CB2 receptor-dependent mechanism. (Carrier EJ, Kearn CS, Barkmeier AJ, Breese NM, Yang W, Nithipatikom K, Pfister SL, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) Mol Pharmacol 2004 Apr;65(4):999-1007 PMID 15044630
  • Production of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and prostaglandins by a novel rat microglial cell line. (Rademacher DJ, Kearn CS, Carrier EJ, Patel S, Delgado MA, Barkmeier A, Klick DE, Breese NM, Pfister SL, Nithipatikom K, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) J Neuroimmunol 2004 Apr;149(1-2):130-41 PMID 15020073
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons is mediated by transferrin receptor iron-dependent depletion of tetrahydrobiopterin and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-derived superoxide. (Shang T, Kotamraju S, Kalivendi SV, Hillard CJ, Kalyanaraman B) J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 30;279(18):19099-112 PMID 14752097
  • Alpha-synuclein up-regulation and aggregation during MPP+-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells: intermediacy of transferrin receptor iron and hydrogen peroxide. (Kalivendi SV, Cunningham S, Kotamraju S, Joseph J, Hillard CJ, Kalyanaraman B) J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 9;279(15):15240-7 PMID 14742448
  • Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer's disease brains. (Benito C, Núñez E, Tolón RM, Carrier EJ, Rábano A, Hillard CJ, Romero J) J Neurosci 2003 Dec 3;23(35):11136-41 PMID 14657172
  • Anandamide content and interaction of endocannabinoid/GABA modulatory effects in the NTS on baroreflex-evoked sympathoinhibition. (Seagard JL, Dean C, Patel S, Rademacher DJ, Hopp FA, Schmeling WT, Hillard CJ) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004 Mar;286(3):H992-1000 PMID 14615281
  • Cellular accumulation of anandamide: consensus and controversy. (Hillard CJ, Jarrahian A) Br J Pharmacol 2003 Nov;140(5):802-8 PMID 12970089
  • The general anesthetic propofol increases brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content and inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase. (Patel S, Wohlfeil ER, Rademacher DJ, Carrier EJ, Perry LJ, Kundu A, Falck JR, Nithipatikom K, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) Br J Pharmacol 2003 Jul;139(5):1005-13 PMID 12839875
  • Differential regulation of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol within the limbic forebrain by dopamine receptor activity. (Patel S, Rademacher DJ, Hillard CJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003 Sep;306(3):880-8 PMID 12808005
  • The mechanism of action of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa-encoded type III cytotoxin, ExoU. (Sato H, Frank DW, Hillard CJ, Feix JB, Pankhaniya RR, Moriyama K, Finck-Barbançon V, Buchaklian A, Lei M, Long RM, Wiener-Kronish J, Sawa T) EMBO J 2003 Jun 16;22(12):2959-69 PMID 12805211
  • Hemisynthesis and preliminary evaluation of novel endocannabinoid analogues. (El Fangour S, Balas L, Rossi JC, Fedenyuk A, Gretskaya N, Bobrov M, Bezuglov V, Hillard CJ, Durand T) Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2003 Jun 16;13(12):1977-80 PMID 12781177
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium accumulates in cerebellar granule neurons via organic cation transporter 3. (Shang T, Uihlein AV, Van Asten J, Kalyanaraman B, Hillard CJ) J Neurochem 2003 Apr;85(2):358-67 PMID 12675912
  • Cannabinoid-induced Fos expression within A10 dopaminergic neurons. (Patel S, Hillard CJ) Brain Res 2003 Feb 14;963(1-2):15-25 PMID 12560108
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial oxidant generation: role of transferrin-receptor-dependent iron and hydrogen peroxide. (Kalivendi SV, Kotamraju S, Cunningham S, Shang T, Hillard CJ, Kalyanaraman B) Biochem J 2003 Apr 1;371(Pt 1):151-64 PMID 12523938
  • Microinjection of a cannabinoid receptor antagonist into the NTS increases baroreflex duration in dogs. (Rademacher DJ, Patel S, Hopp FA, Dean C, Hillard CJ, Seagard JL) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2003 May;284(5):H1570-6 PMID 12521935
  • The CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 enhances stimulus-induced activation of the primary somatosensory cortex of the rat. (Patel S, Gerrits R, Muthian S, Greene AS, Hillard CJ) Neurosci Lett 2002 Dec 25;335(2):95-8 PMID 12459507
  • Fatty acid amide hydrolase localization in the human central nervous system: an immunohistochemical study. (Romero J, Hillard CJ, Calero M, Rábano A) Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2002 Apr 30;100(1-2):85-93 PMID 12008024
  • Cannabinoid-receptor-independent cell signalling by N-acylethanolamines. (Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Krebsbach RJ, Hillard CJ, Huang C, Chen N, Dong Z, Schmid HH) Biochem J 2001 Nov 15;360(Pt 1):67-75 PMID 11695993
  • Cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit depolarization-induced calcium influx in cerebellar granule neurons. (Nogueron MI, Porgilsson B, Schneider WE, Stucky CL, Hillard CJ) J Neurochem 2001 Oct;79(2):371-81 PMID 11677265
  • Cannabinoids inhibit emesis through CB1 receptors in the brainstem of the ferret. (Van Sickle MD, Oland LD, Ho W, Hillard CJ, Mackie K, Davison JS, Sharkey KA) Gastroenterology 2001 Oct;121(4):767-74 PMID 11606489
  • Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonists produce cerebellar dysfunction in mice. (Patel S, Hillard CJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001 May;297(2):629-37 PMID 11303052
  • Endothelium-independent, ouabain-sensitive relaxation of bovine coronary arteries by EETs. (Pratt PF, Li P, Hillard CJ, Kurian J, Campbell WB) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001 Mar;280(3):H1113-21 PMID 11179054
  • The cellular uptake of anandamide is coupled to its breakdown by fatty-acid amide hydrolase. (Deutsch DG, Glaser ST, Howell JM, Kunz JS, Puffenbarger RA, Hillard CJ, Abumrad N) J Biol Chem 2001 Mar 9;276(10):6967-73 PMID 11118429
  • The movement of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) across cellular membranes. (Hillard CJ, Jarrahian A) Chem Phys Lipids 2000 Nov;108(1-2):123-34 PMID 11106786
  • Inhibition of small intestinal secretion by cannabinoids is CB1 receptor-mediated in rats. (Tyler K, Hillard CJ, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B) Eur J Pharmacol 2000 Dec 8;409(2):207-11 PMID 11104836
  • Endocannabinoids and vascular function. (Hillard CJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000 Jul;294(1):27-32 PMID 10871291
  • Structure-activity relationships among N-arachidonylethanolamine (Anandamide) head group analogues for the anandamide transporter. (Jarrahian A, Manna S, Edgemond WS, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) J Neurochem 2000 Jun;74(6):2597-606 PMID 10820223
  • Biochemistry and pharmacology of the endocannabinoids arachidonylethanolamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. (Hillard CJ) Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2000 Apr;61(1-2):3-18 PMID 10785538
  • Synthesis and characterization of a fluorescent substrate for the N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) transmembrane carrier. (Muthian S, Nithipatikom K, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000 Apr;293(1):289-95 PMID 10734181
  • Effects of CB(1) cannabinoid receptor activation on cerebellar granule cell nitric oxide synthase activity. (Hillard CJ, Muthian S, Kearn CS) FEBS Lett 1999 Oct 8;459(2):277-81 PMID 10518035
  • Cannabinoid CB1 receptor of cat cerebral arterial muscle functions to inhibit L-type Ca2+ channel current. (Gebremedhin D, Lange AR, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ, Harder DR) Am J Physiol 1999 Jun;276(6 Pt 2):H2085-93 PMID 10362691
  • Relationships between ligand affinities for the cerebellar cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the induction of GDP/GTP exchange. (Kearn CS, Greenberg MJ, DiCamelli R, Kurzawa K, Hillard CJ) J Neurochem 1999 Jun;72(6):2379-87 PMID 10349847
  • Synthesis and characterization of potent and selective agonists of the neuronal cannabinoid receptor (CB1). (Hillard CJ, Manna S, Greenberg MJ, DiCamelli R, Ross RA, Stevenson LA, Murphy V, Pertwee RG, Campbell WB) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999 Jun;289(3):1427-33 PMID 10336536
  • Fatty acid amide hydrolase is located preferentially in large neurons in the rat central nervous system as revealed by immunohistochemistry. (Tsou K, Nogueron MI, Muthian S, Sañudo-Pena MC, Hillard CJ, Deutsch DG, Walker JM) Neurosci Lett 1998 Oct 2;254(3):137-40 PMID 10214976
  • Human platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes synthesize oxygenated derivatives of arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide): their affinities for cannabinoid receptors and pathways of inactivation. (Edgemond WS, Hillard CJ, Falck JR, Kearn CS, Campbell WB) Mol Pharmacol 1998 Jul;54(1):180-8 PMID 9658204
  • Synthesis and characterization of diazomethylarachidonyl ketone: an irreversible inhibitor of N-arachidonylethanolamine amidohydrolase. (Edgemond WS, Greenberg MJ, McGinley PJ, Muthian S, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998 Jul;286(1):184-90 PMID 9655859
  • N-arachidonylethanolamide relaxation of bovine coronary artery is not mediated by CB1 cannabinoid receptor. (Pratt PF, Hillard CJ, Edgemond WS, Campbell WB) Am J Physiol 1998 Jan;274(1 Pt 2):H375-81 PMID 9458889
  • Biochemistry and pharmacology of arachidonylethanolamide, a putative endogenous cannabinoid. (Hillard CJ, Campbell WB) J Lipid Res 1997 Dec;38(12):2383-98 PMID 9458263
  • Arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide) binds with low affinity to dihydropyridine binding sites in brain membranes. (Jarrahian A, Hillard CJ) Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997 Dec;57(6):551-4 PMID 9431821
  • Accumulation of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) into cerebellar granule cells occurs via facilitated diffusion. (Hillard CJ, Edgemond WS, Jarrahian A, Campbell WB) J Neurochem 1997 Aug;69(2):631-8 PMID 9231721
  • The role of nitric oxide in the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia. (Smith JJ, Lee JG, Hudetz AG, Hillard CJ, Bosnjak ZJ, Kampine JP) Anesth Analg 1997 Feb;84(2):363-9 PMID 9024030
  • Immunocytes and abnormal gastrointestinal motor activity during ileitis in dogs. (Jouët P, Sarna SK, Singaram C, Ryan RP, Hillard CJ, Telford GL, Fink J, Henderson JD) Am J Physiol 1995 Dec;269(6 Pt 1):G913-24 PMID 8572223
  • Characterization of the kinetics and distribution of N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) hydrolysis by rat brain. (Hillard CJ, Wilkison DM, Edgemond WS, Campbell WB) Biochim Biophys Acta 1995 Aug 3;1257(3):249-56 PMID 7647100
  • Laser-Doppler measurement of the effects of halothane and isoflurane on the cerebrovascular CO2 response in the rat. (Lee JG, Smith JJ, Hudetz AG, Hillard CJ, Bosnjak ZJ, Kampine JP) Anesth Analg 1995 Apr;80(4):696-702 PMID 7893020
  • Characterization of ligand binding to the cannabinoid receptor of rat brain membranes using a novel method: application to anandamide. (Hillard CJ, Edgemond WS, Campbell WB) J Neurochem 1995 Feb;64(2):677-83 PMID 7830060
  • The binding of novel phenolic derivatives of anandamide to brain cannabinoid receptors. (Edgemond WS, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ) Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1995 Feb-Mar;52(2-3):83-6 PMID 7784462
  • The effects of halothane and isoflurane on cerebrocortical microcirculation and autoregulation as assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry. (Lee JG, Hudetz AG, Smith JJ, Hillard CJ, Bosnjak ZJ, Kampine JP) Anesth Analg 1994 Jul;79(1):58-65 PMID 8010455
  • Decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine release in spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats. Role of hypoglycemia. (Wilke RA, Hillard CJ) Diabetes 1994 May;43(5):724-9 PMID 8168651
  • In vitro activation of brain protein kinase C by the cannabinoids. (Hillard CJ, Auchampach JA) Biochim Biophys Acta 1994 Jan 13;1220(2):163-70 PMID 8312360
  • Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats. (Wilke RA, Riley DA, Lelkes PI, Hillard CJ) Diabetes 1993 Jun;42(6):862-8 PMID 8495810
  • Effects of chronic nicotine treatment on the accumulation of [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium by cerebral cortical synaptosomes. (Hillard CJ, Pounds JJ) J Neurochem 1993 Feb;60(2):687-95 PMID 8419544
  • Nicotine-induced depolarization of cerebral cortical synaptosomes is dependent upon sodium. (Hillard CJ) Neuropharmacology 1992 Sep;31(9):909-14 PMID 1436397
  • Role of guanylate cyclase-cGMP systems in halothane-induced vasodilation in canine cerebral arteries. (Eskinder H, Hillard CJ, Flynn N, Bosnjak ZJ, Kampine JP) Anesthesiology 1992 Sep;77(3):482-7 PMID 1355637
  • [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium accumulation in cerebral cortical synaptosomes as a measure of nicotine-induced changes in membrane potential. (Hillard CJ, Pounds JJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991 Dec;259(3):1118-23 PMID 1762066
  • Studies of the effect of nicotine on synaptosomal calcium accumulation using FURA-2. (Hillard CJ, Graf WK) NIDA Res Monogr 1990;105:331-2 PMID 1876032
  • Studies of the role of membrane lipid order in the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on adenylate cyclase activation in heart. (Hillard CJ, Pounds JJ, Boyer DR, Bloom AS) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990 Mar;252(3):1075-82 PMID 2156989
  • Effect of KT-362, a putative intracellular calcium antagonist, on norepinephrine-induced contractions and inositol monophosphate accumulation in canine femoral artery. (Eskinder H, Hillard CJ, Wilke RA, Gross GJ) J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989 Mar;13(3):502-7 PMID 2471898
  • Alpha adrenoceptor subtypes and receptor reserve in human versus canine saphenous vein: sensitivity to blockade by nitroglycerin. (Eskinder H, Hillard CJ, Olinger GN, Christensen CW, Baker JE, Warltier DC, Gross GJ) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988 Dec;247(3):941-8 PMID 2905005
  • Effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on glucagon receptor coupling to adenylate cyclase in rat liver plasma membranes. (Hillard CJ, Bloom AS, Houslay MD) Biochem Pharmacol 1986 Aug 15;35(16):2797-803 PMID 3017362
  • Effects of the cannabinoids on physical properties of brain membranes and phospholipid vesicles: fluorescence studies. (Hillard CJ, Harris RA, Bloom AS) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1985 Mar;232(3):579-88 PMID 2983062
  • The effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on serum thyrotropin levels in the rat. (Hillard CJ, Farber NE, Hagen TC, Bloom AS) Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1984 Apr;20(4):547-50 PMID 6328543
  • Possible role of prostaglandins in the effects of the cannabinoids on adenylate cyclase activity. (Hillard CJ, Bloom AS) Eur J Pharmacol 1983 Jul 15;91(1):21-7 PMID 6311573
  • delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-induced changes in beta-adrenergic receptor binding in mouse cerebral cortex. (Hillard CJ, Bloom AS) Brain Res 1982 Mar 11;235(2):370-7 PMID 6329417
  • Grants and Awards

  • Cannabinoid Regulation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (#9206144 03/01/2010 - 02/28/2015) Sponsor: NIH Drug Abuse
  • Role of Endocannabinoids in Post-Trauma Reactivation (#9207782 10/01/2012 - 09/30/2016) Sponsor: United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation
  • Cannabinoid Receptors and Cerebrovascular Function (#9202722 02/15/2003 - 01/31/2008) Sponsor: NIH Neurological Disorders and Stroke
  • Program for the Study of Neuronal Synaptic Plasticity in Health and Illness (#9520217 01/01/2012 - 12/31/2016) Sponsor: AHW-Research and Education Program
  • Biochemistry of Anadamide, An Endogenous Cannabinoid (#9204540 04/01/2007 - 09/30/2012) Sponsor: NIH Drug Abuse
  • Brain Endocannabinoids and Chronic Stress (#9202967 08/01/2003 - 05/31/2007) Sponsor: NIH Drug Abuse
  • Drugs, Drug Targets and You: Molecular Neuroscience for Teachers and Students (#9207698 09/01/2012 - 05/31/2016) Sponsor: Milwaukee School of Engineering
  • Cannabinoids and Cerebellar Prefrontal Function (#9202612 09/15/2002 - 09/14/2005) Sponsor: Natl Alliance for Rsch on Schizophrenia & Depressn