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Allen W. Cowley Jr PhD

Allen W. Cowley Jr PhD

Chair, Professor

Institution: Medical College of Wisconsin
Department: Physiology
Program: Administration

Member of the Cardiovascular Center


Leadership Positions

  • Professor and Chairman, Department of Physiology
  • Interim Director, Human and Molecular Genetics Center
  • Publications

  • Acute In Vivo Analysis of ATP Release in Rat Kidneys in Response to Changes of Renal Perfusion Pressure. (Palygin O, Evans LC, Cowley AW Jr, Staruschenko A) J Am Heart Assoc 2017 Sep 12;6(9) PMID: 28899893 09/14/2017
  • Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats. (Kumar V, Wollner C, Kurth T, Bukowy JD, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2017 Oct;70(4):813-821 PMID: 28827472 PMCID: PMC5599353 08/23/2017
  • How can precision medicine be applied to temporomandibular disorders and its comorbidities? (Wilentz JB, Cowley AW Jr) Mol Pain 2017 Jan-Dec;13:1744806917710094 PMID: 28741410 PMCID: PMC5533261 07/26/2017
  • Increased Perfusion Pressure Drives Renal T-Cell Infiltration in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rat. (Evans LC, Petrova G, Kurth T, Yang C, Bukowy JD, Mattson DL, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2017 Sep;70(3):543-551 PMID: 28696224 PMCID: PMC5589123 07/12/2017
  • Renal Delivery of Anti-microRNA Oligonucleotides in Rats. (Usa KS, Liu Y, Kurth T, Kriegel AJ, Mattson DL, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Methods Mol Biol 2017;1527:409-419 PMID: 28116733 01/25/2017
  • Breaking the Cycle: Estrous Variation Does Not Require Increased Sample Size in the Study of Female Rats. (Dayton A, Exner EC, Bukowy JD, Stodola TJ, Kurth T, Skelton M, Greene AS, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2016 Nov;68(5):1139-1144 PMID: 27672030 PMCID: PMC5104284 09/28/2016
  • Role of Nox4 and p67phox subunit of Nox2 in ROS production in response to increased tubular flow in the mTAL of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (Zheleznova NN, Yang C, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2016 Aug 01;311(2):F450-8 PMID: 27279484 PMCID: PMC5243222 06/10/2016
  • p66Shc regulates renal vascular tone in hypertension-induced nephropathy. (Miller B, Palygin O, Rufanova VA, Chong A, Lazar J, Jacob HJ, Mattson D, Roman RJ, Williams JM, Cowley AW Jr, Geurts AM, Staruschenko A, Imig JD, Sorokin A) J Clin Invest 2016 Jul 01;126(7):2533-46 PMID: 27270176 PMCID: PMC4922697 06/09/2016
  • Introduction to the American Heart Association's Hypertension Strategically Focused Research Network. (Muntner P, Becker RC, Calhoun D, Chen D, Cowley AW Jr, Flynn JT, Grobe JL, Kidambi S, Kotchen TA, Lackland DT, Leslie KK, Li Y, Liang M, Lloyd A, Mattson DL, Mendizabal B, Mitsnefes M, Nair A, Pierce GL, Pollock JS, Safford MM, Santillan MK, Sigmund CD, Thomas SJ, Urbina EM) Hypertension 2016 Apr;67(4):674-80 PMID: 26902490 PMCID: PMC5135412 02/24/2016
  • Ushering Hypertension Into a New Era of Precision Medicine. (Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) JAMA 2016 Jan 26;315(4):343-4 PMID: 26769233 PMCID: PMC5238956 01/16/2016
  • Evidence of the Importance of Nox4 in Production of Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats. (Cowley AW Jr, Yang C, Zheleznova NN, Staruschenko A, Kurth T, Rein L, Kumar V, Sadovnikov K, Dayton A, Hoffman M, Ryan RP, Skelton MM, Salehpour F, Ranji M, Geurts A) Hypertension 2016 Feb;67(2):440-50 PMID: 26644237 PMCID: PMC4713301 12/09/2015
  • Pappa2 is linked to salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. (Cowley AW Jr, Yang C, Kumar V, Lazar J, Jacob H, Geurts AM, Liu P, Dayton A, Kurth T, Liang M) Physiol Genomics 2016 Jan;48(1):62-72 PMID: 26534937 PMCID: PMC4757026 11/05/2015
  • Use of Enzymatic Biosensors to Quantify Endogenous ATP or H2O2 in the Kidney. (Palygin O, Levchenko V, Evans LC, Blass G, Cowley AW Jr, Staruschenko A) J Vis Exp 2015 Oct 12(104) PMID: 26485400 PMCID: PMC4684070 10/21/2015
  • Endogenous microRNAs in human microvascular endothelial cells regulate mRNAs encoded by hypertension-related genes. (Kriegel AJ, Baker MA, Liu Y, Liu P, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Hypertension 2015 Oct;66(4):793-9 PMID: 26283043 PMCID: PMC4567475 08/19/2015
  • deGPS is a powerful tool for detecting differential expression in RNA-sequencing studies. (Chu C, Fang Z, Hua X, Yang Y, Chen E, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M, Liu P, Lu Y) BMC Genomics 2015 Jun 13;16:455 PMID: 26070955 PMCID: PMC4465298 06/14/2015
  • Effects of p67phox on the mitochondrial oxidative state in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive rats: optical fluorescence 3-D cryoimaging. (Salehpour F, Ghanian Z, Yang C, Zheleznova NN, Kurth T, Dash RK, Cowley AW Jr, Ranji M) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2015 Aug 15;309(4):F377-82 PMID: 26062875 PMCID: PMC4596732 06/13/2015
  • Genetic, epigenetic, and mechanistic studies of temporomandibular disorders and overlapping pain conditions. (Munzenmaier DH, Wilentz J, Cowley AW Jr) Mol Pain 2014 Dec 15;10:72 PMID: 25511046 PMCID: PMC4269918 12/17/2014
  • Null mutation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase subunit p67phox protects the Dahl-S rat from salt-induced reductions in medullary blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. (Evans LC, Ryan RP, Broadway E, Skelton MM, Kurth T, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):561-8 PMID: 25489057 PMCID: PMC4326559 12/10/2014
  • Maternal diet during gestation and lactation modifies the severity of salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (Geurts AM, Mattson DL, Liu P, Cabacungan E, Skelton MM, Kurth TM, Yang C, Endres BT, Klotz J, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):447-55 PMID: 25452472 PMCID: PMC4289102 12/03/2014
  • Characteristics of long non-coding RNAs in the Brown Norway rat and alterations in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. (Wang F, Li L, Xu H, Liu Y, Yang C, Cowley AW Jr, Wang N, Liu P, Liang M) Sci Rep 2014 Nov 21;4:7146 PMID: 25413633 PMCID: PMC4894415 11/22/2014
  • Reactive oxygen species as important determinants of medullary flow, sodium excretion, and hypertension. (Cowley AW Jr, Abe M, Mori T, O'Connor PM, Ohsaki Y, Zheleznova NN) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2015 Feb 01;308(3):F179-97 PMID: 25354941 PMCID: PMC4312962 10/31/2014
  • Improved rat genome gene prediction by integration of ESTs with RNA-Seq information. (Li L, Chen E, Yang C, Zhu J, Jayaraman P, De Pons J, Kaczorowski CC, Jacob HJ, Greene AS, Hodges MR, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M, Xu H, Liu P, Lu Y) Bioinformatics 2015 Jan 01;31(1):25-32 PMID: 25217576 PMCID: PMC4296142 09/14/2014
  • Characterization of biological pathways associated with a 1.37 Mbp genomic region protective of hypertension in Dahl S rats. (Cowley AW Jr, Moreno C, Jacob HJ, Peterson CB, Stingo FC, Ahn KW, Liu P, Vannucci M, Laud PW, Reddy P, Lazar J, Evans L, Yang C, Kurth T, Liang M) Physiol Genomics 2014 Jun 01;46(11):398-410 PMID: 24714719 PMCID: PMC4042181 04/10/2014
  • Ultrastructure of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum in renal tubules of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (He X, Liu Y, Usa K, Tian Z, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2014 May 15;306(10):F1190-7 PMID: 24694587 PMCID: PMC4024733 04/04/2014
  • Base-resolution maps of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in Dahl S rats: effect of salt and genomic sequence. (Liu Y, Liu P, Yang C, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Hypertension 2014 Apr;63(4):827-38 PMID: 24420542 PMCID: PMC4315612 01/15/2014
  • Effect of P2X4 and P2X7 receptor antagonism on the pressure diuresis relationship in rats. (Menzies RI, Unwin RJ, Dash RK, Beard DA, Cowley AW Jr, Carlson BE, Mullins JJ, Bailey MA) Front Physiol 2013;4:305 PMID: 24187541 PMCID: PMC3807716 11/05/2013
  • Aldosterone secretagogues increase adrenal blood flow in male rats. (Ansurudeen I, Kopf PG, Gauthier KM, Bornstein SR, Cowley AW Jr, Campbell WB) Endocrinology 2014 Jan;155(1):127-32 PMID: 24169551 PMCID: PMC3868807 10/31/2013
  • Epigenomics of hypertension. (Liang M, Cowley AW Jr, Mattson DL, Kotchen TA, Liu Y) Semin Nephrol 2013 Jul;33(4):392-9 PMID: 24011581 PMCID: PMC3777799 09/10/2013
  • CTGF a tubular twist on an old theme. (Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2013 Oct;62(4):687-8 PMID: 23959551 08/21/2013
  • Salt in health and disease--a delicate balance. (Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr, Frohlich ED) N Engl J Med 2013 Jun 27;368(26):2531-2 PMID: 23802533 06/28/2013
  • Progression of glomerular filtration rate reduction determined in conscious Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. (Cowley AW Jr, Ryan RP, Kurth T, Skelton MM, Schock-Kusch D, Gretz N) Hypertension 2013 Jul;62(1):85-90 PMID: 23630946 PMCID: PMC3806646 05/01/2013
  • Deficiency of renal cortical EGF increases ENaC activity and contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension. (Pavlov TS, Levchenko V, O'Connor PM, Ilatovskaya DV, Palygin O, Mori T, Mattson DL, Sorokin A, Lombard JH, Cowley AW Jr, Staruschenko A) J Am Soc Nephrol 2013 Jun;24(7):1053-62 PMID: 23599382 PMCID: PMC3699826 04/20/2013
  • Real-time electrochemical detection of ATP and H₂O₂ release in freshly isolated kidneys. (Palygin O, Levchenko V, Ilatovskaya DV, Pavlov TS, Ryan RP, Cowley AW Jr, Staruschenko A) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2013 Jul 01;305(1):F134-41 PMID: 23594827 PMCID: PMC3725679 04/19/2013
  • Salt in health and disease--a delicate balance. (Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr, Frohlich ED) N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 28;368(13):1229-37 PMID: 23534562 03/29/2013
  • Dynamic genetic linkage of intermediate blood pressure phenotypes during postural adaptations in a founder population. (Arenas IA, Tremblay J, Deslauriers B, Sandoval J, Šeda O, Gaudet D, Merlo E, Kotchen T, Cowley AW Jr, Hamet P) Physiol Genomics 2013 Feb 15;45(4):138-50 PMID: 23269701 PMCID: PMC3774577 12/28/2012
  • Increased proliferative cells in the medullary thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. (Yang C, Stingo FC, Ahn KW, Liu P, Vannucci M, Laud PW, Skelton M, O'Connor P, Kurth T, Ryan RP, Moreno C, Tsaih SW, Patone G, Hummel O, Jacob HJ, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2013 Jan;61(1):208-15 PMID: 23184381 PMCID: PMC3760736 11/28/2012
  • PPAR-ϒ pathway to vascular dysfunction. (Lombard JH, Cowley AW Jr) Cell Metab 2012 Oct 03;16(4):410-1 PMID: 23040065 10/09/2012
  • Medullary thick ascending limb buffer vasoconstriction of renal outer-medullary vasa recta in salt-resistant but not salt-sensitive rats. (O'Connor PM, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2012 Oct;60(4):965-72 PMID: 22926950 PMCID: PMC3785299 08/29/2012
  • Mitochondrial proteomic analysis reveals deficiencies in oxygen utilization in medullary thick ascending limb of Henle in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. (Zheleznova NN, Yang C, Ryan RP, Halligan BD, Liang M, Greene AS, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2012 Sep 01;44(17):829-42 PMID: 22805345 PMCID: PMC3472460 07/19/2012
  • Non-replication study of a genome-wide association study for hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans. (Kidambi S, Ghosh S, Kotchen JM, Grim CE, Krishnaswami S, Kaldunski ML, Cowley AW Jr, Patel SB, Kotchen TA) BMC Med Genet 2012 Apr 11;13:27 PMID: 22494468 PMCID: PMC3349540 04/13/2012
  • Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on epigenetics and hypertension. (Cowley AW Jr, Nadeau JH, Baccarelli A, Berecek K, Fornage M, Gibbons GH, Harrison DG, Liang M, Nathanielsz PW, O'Connor DT, Ordovas J, Peng W, Soares MB, Szyf M, Tolunay HE, Wood KC, Zhao K, Galis ZS) Hypertension 2012 May;59(5):899-905 PMID: 22431584 PMCID: PMC3885905 03/21/2012
  • Increased expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p67(phox) in the renal medulla contributes to excess oxidative stress and salt-sensitive hypertension. (Feng D, Yang C, Geurts AM, Kurth T, Liang M, Lazar J, Mattson DL, O'Connor PM, Cowley AW Jr) Cell Metab 2012 Feb 08;15(2):201-8 PMID: 22326221 PMCID: PMC3280886 02/14/2012
  • Genetic mapping of habitual substance use, obesity-related traits, responses to mental and physical stress, and heart rate and blood pressure measurements reveals shared genes that are overrepresented in the neural synapse. (Nikpay M, Šeda O, Tremblay J, Petrovich M, Gaudet D, Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr, Hamet P) Hypertens Res 2012 Jun;35(6):585-91 PMID: 22297481 PMCID: PMC3368234 02/03/2012
  • Increase of sodium delivery stimulates the mitochondrial respiratory chain H2O2 production in rat renal medullary thick ascending limb. (Ohsaki Y, O'Connor P, Mori T, Ryan RP, Dickinson BC, Chang CJ, Lu Y, Ito S, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2012 Jan 01;302(1):F95-F102 PMID: 21975873 PMCID: PMC3251339 10/07/2011
  • NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli. (Ilatovskaya DV, Levchenko V, Ryan RP, Cowley AW Jr, Staruschenko A) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011 May 06;408(2):242-7 PMID: 21473850 PMCID: PMC3093766 04/09/2011
  • Renal injury in angiotensin II+L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats is independent of elevated blood pressure. (Polichnowski AJ, Lu L, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2011 Apr;300(4):F1008-16 PMID: 21270093 PMCID: PMC3074995 01/29/2011
  • Narrowing a region on rat chromosome 13 that protects against hypertension in Dahl SS-13BN congenic strains. (Moreno C, Williams JM, Lu L, Liang M, Lazar J, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr, Roman RJ) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2011 Apr;300(4):H1530-5 PMID: 21257920 PMCID: PMC3075031 01/25/2011
  • Comments on Point:Counterpoint: The dominant contributor to systemic hypertension: Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system vs. Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. (Cowley AW Jr) J Appl Physiol (1985) 2010 Dec;109(6):2009-10 PMID: 21188824 12/29/2010
  • Temporomandibular disorders and associated clinical comorbidities. (Hoffmann RG, Kotchen JM, Kotchen TA, Cowley T, Dasgupta M, Cowley AW Jr) Clin J Pain 2011 Mar-Apr;27(3):268-74 PMID: 21178593 12/24/2010
  • Analyzing complex traits with congenic strains. (Shao H, Sinasac DS, Burrage LC, Hodges CA, Supelak PJ, Palmert MR, Moreno C, Cowley AW Jr, Jacob HJ, Nadeau JH) Mamm Genome 2010 Jun;21(5-6):276-86 PMID: 20524000 PMCID: PMC3805105 06/05/2010
  • Modulation of pressure-natriuresis by renal medullary reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. (O'Connor PM, Cowley AW Jr) Curr Hypertens Rep 2010 Apr;12(2):86-92 PMID: 20424940 PMCID: PMC3722865 04/29/2010
  • Role of renal perfusion pressure versus angiotensin II on renal oxidative stress in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats. (Polichnowski AJ, Jin C, Yang C, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2010 Jun;55(6):1425-30 PMID: 20404214 PMCID: PMC2884003 04/21/2010
  • Identifying physiological origins of baroreflex dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl SS rat. (Bugenhagen SM, Cowley AW Jr, Beard DA) Physiol Genomics 2010 Jun;42(1):23-41 PMID: 20354102 PMCID: PMC2888563 04/01/2010
  • Renal medullary microRNAs in Dahl salt-sensitive rats: miR-29b regulates several collagens and related genes. (Liu Y, Taylor NE, Lu L, Usa K, Cowley AW Jr, Ferreri NR, Yeo NC, Liang M) Hypertension 2010 Apr;55(4):974-82 PMID: 20194304 PMCID: PMC2862728 03/03/2010
  • Dynamic convergence and divergence of renal genomic and biological pathways in protection from Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension. (Lu L, Li P, Yang C, Kurth T, Misale M, Skelton M, Moreno C, Roman RJ, Greene AS, Jacob HJ, Lazar J, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2010 Mar 03;41(1):63-70 PMID: 20009007 PMCID: PMC2841498 12/17/2009
  • Phosducin influences sympathetic activity and prevents stress-induced hypertension in humans and mice. (Beetz N, Harrison MD, Brede M, Zong X, Urbanski MJ, Sietmann A, Kaufling J, Lorkowski S, Barrot M, Seeliger MW, Vieira-Coelho MA, Hamet P, Gaudet D, Seda O, Tremblay J, Kotchen TA, Kaldunski M, Nüsing R, Szabo B, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr, Biel M, Stoll M, Lohse MJ, Broeckel U, Hein L) J Clin Invest 2009 Dec;119(12):3597-3612 PMID: 19959875 PMCID: PMC2786789 12/05/2009
  • Pressure-induced renal injury in angiotensin II versus norepinephrine-induced hypertensive rats. (Polichnowski AJ, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2009 Dec;54(6):1269-77 PMID: 19858406 PMCID: PMC2812436 10/28/2009
  • A novel amiloride-sensitive h+ transport pathway mediates enhanced superoxide production in thick ascending limb of salt-sensitive rats, not na+/h+ exchange. (O'Connor PM, Lu L, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2009 Aug;54(2):248-54 PMID: 19564541 PMCID: PMC2771701 07/01/2009
  • Novel role of fumarate metabolism in dahl-salt sensitive hypertension. (Tian Z, Liu Y, Usa K, Mladinov D, Fang Y, Ding X, Greene AS, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Hypertension 2009 Aug;54(2):255-60 PMID: 19546378 PMCID: PMC2721687 06/24/2009
  • Effects of renal perfusion pressure on renal medullary hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production. (Jin C, Hu C, Polichnowski A, Mori T, Skelton M, Ito S, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2009 Jun;53(6):1048-53 PMID: 19433780 PMCID: PMC2777807 05/13/2009
  • MicroRNA: a new frontier in kidney and blood pressure research. (Liang M, Liu Y, Mladinov D, Cowley AW Jr, Trivedi H, Fang Y, Xu X, Ding X, Tian Z) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009 Sep;297(3):F553-8 PMID: 19339633 PMCID: PMC2739705 04/03/2009
  • Research recommendations from the fifth scientific meeting of the TMJ association: can studies of comorbidities with tmjds reveal common mechanisms of disease? (Cowley AW Jr) J Oral Rehabil 2009 Apr;36(4):237-9 PMID: 19278375 03/13/2009
  • Renal medullary oxidative stress, pressure-natriuresis, and hypertension. (Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2008 Nov;52(5):777-86 PMID: 18852392 PMCID: PMC2659638 10/15/2008
  • Chromosome substitution reveals the genetic basis of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension and renal disease. (Mattson DL, Dwinell MR, Greene AS, Kwitek AE, Roman RJ, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008 Sep;295(3):F837-42 PMID: 18653478 PMCID: PMC2536867 07/26/2008
  • Enhanced amiloride-sensitive superoxide production in renal medullary thick ascending limb of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (O'Connor PM, Lu L, Schreck C, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008 Sep;295(3):F726-33 PMID: 18579705 PMCID: PMC2536875 06/27/2008
  • Molecular networks in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension based on transcriptome analysis of a panel of consomic rats. (Liang M, Lee NH, Wang H, Greene AS, Kwitek AE, Kaldunski ML, Luu TV, Frank BC, Bugenhagen S, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2008 Jun 12;34(1):54-64 PMID: 18430809 04/24/2008
  • High perfusion pressure accelerates renal injury in salt-sensitive hypertension. (Mori T, Polichnowski A, Glocka P, Kaldunski M, Ohsaki Y, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr) J Am Soc Nephrol 2008 Aug;19(8):1472-82 PMID: 18417720 PMCID: PMC2488259 04/18/2008
  • Renal regional proteomes in young Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (Tian Z, Greene AS, Usa K, Matus IR, Bauwens J, Pietrusz JL, Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Hypertension 2008 Apr;51(4):899-904 PMID: 18316652 03/05/2008
  • Systematic, genome-wide, sex-specific linkage of cardiovascular traits in French Canadians. (Seda O, Tremblay J, Gaudet D, Brunelle PL, Gurau A, Merlo E, Pilote L, Orlov SN, Boulva F, Petrovich M, Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr, Hamet P) Hypertension 2008 Apr;51(4):1156-62 PMID: 18259002 02/09/2008
  • Harnessing "omic" tools and computational hypothesis-driven approaches to understand biocomplexity: the future of Physiological Genomics. (Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2008 Mar 14;33(1):1-2 PMID: 18198282 01/17/2008
  • Chromosomal mapping of the genetic basis of hypertension and renal disease in FHH rats. (Mattson DL, Dwinell MR, Greene AS, Kwitek AE, Roman RJ, Cowley AW Jr, Jacob HJ) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007 Dec;293(6):F1905-14 PMID: 17898042 09/28/2007
  • Multiple blood pressure loci on rat chromosome 13 attenuate development of hypertension in the Dahl S hypertensive rat. (Moreno C, Kaldunski ML, Wang T, Roman RJ, Greene AS, Lazar J, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2007 Oct 22;31(2):228-35 PMID: 17566075 06/15/2007
  • Vasopressin-induced nitric oxide production in rat inner medullary collecting duct is dependent on V2 receptor activation of the phosphoinositide pathway. (O'Connor PM, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007 Aug;293(2):F526-32 PMID: 17507604 05/18/2007
  • Enhanced superoxide production in renal outer medulla of Dahl salt-sensitive rats reduces nitric oxide tubular-vascular cross-talk. (Mori T, O'Connor PM, Abe M, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2007 Jun;49(6):1336-41 PMID: 17470722 05/02/2007
  • Genomics and proteomics of lung disease: conference summary. (Raj JU, Aliferis C, Caprioli RM, Cowley AW Jr, Davies PF, Duncan MW, Erle DJ, Erzurum SC, Finn PW, Ischiropoulos H, Kaminski N, Kleeberger SR, Leikauf GD, Loyd JE, Martin TR, Matalon S, Moore JH, Quackenbush J, Sabo-Attwood T, Shapiro SD, Schnitzer JE, Schwartz DA, Schwiebert LM, Sheppard D, Ware LB, Weiss ST, Whitsett JA, Wurfel MM, Matthay MA) Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007 Jul;293(1):L45-51 PMID: 17468134 PMCID: PMC4212816 05/01/2007
  • Efficient transgenic rat production by a lentiviral vector. (Michalkiewicz M, Michalkiewicz T, Geurts AM, Roman RJ, Slocum GR, Singer O, Weihrauch D, Greene AS, Kaldunski M, Verma IM, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007 Jul;293(1):H881-94 PMID: 17322424 02/27/2007
  • Relating cardiac performance with oxygen consumption: historical observations continue to spawn scientific discovery. (Gutterman DD, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2006 Dec;291(6):H2555-6 PMID: 17090783 11/09/2006
  • NO synthase uncoupling in the kidney of Dahl S rats: role of dihydrobiopterin. (Taylor NE, Maier KG, Roman RJ, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2006 Dec;48(6):1066-71 PMID: 17060509 10/25/2006
  • The genetic dissection of essential hypertension. (Cowley AW Jr) Nat Rev Genet 2006 Nov;7(11):829-40 PMID: 17033627 10/13/2006
  • Consomic strategies to localize genomic regions related to vascular reactivity in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. (Kunert MP, Drenjancevic-Peric I, Dwinell MR, Lombard JH, Cowley AW Jr, Greene AS, Kwitek AE, Jacob HJ) Physiol Genomics 2006 Aug 16;26(3):218-25 PMID: 16772359 06/15/2006
  • Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb. (Abe M, O'Connor P, Kaldunski M, Liang M, Roman RJ, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2006 Aug;291(2):F350-7 PMID: 16597609 04/07/2006
  • NADPH oxidase in the renal medulla causes oxidative stress and contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. (Taylor NE, Glocka P, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2006 Apr;47(4):692-8 PMID: 16505210 03/01/2006
  • Physiology and genomics: toward systems biology. (Cowley AW Jr, Liang M) Sheng Li Xue Bao 2006 Feb 25;58(1):1-4 PMID: 16489396 02/21/2006
  • BN phenome: detailed characterization of the cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary systems of the sequenced rat. (Kwitek AE, Jacob HJ, Baker JE, Dwinell MR, Forster HV, Greene AS, Kunert MP, Lombard JH, Mattson DL, Pritchard KA Jr, Roman RJ, Tonellato PJ, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2006 Apr 13;25(2):303-13 PMID: 16478827 02/16/2006
  • Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies of chronic renal injury: physiological role of angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in renal medulla. (Mori T, Cowley AW Jr, Ito S) J Pharmacol Sci 2006 Jan;100(1):2-8 PMID: 16404134 01/13/2006
  • Effect of renal medullary H2O2 on salt-induced hypertension and renal injury. (Taylor NE, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2005 Dec;289(6):R1573-9 PMID: 16109803 08/20/2005
  • Cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid in the kidney of rats with diabetes insipidus. (Sarkis A, Ito O, Mori T, Kohzuki M, Ito S, Verbalis J, Cowley AW Jr, Roman RJ) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005 Dec;289(6):F1333-40 PMID: 16014574 07/15/2005
  • Transcriptome analysis and kidney research: toward systems biology. (Liang M, Cowley AW Jr, Hessner MJ, Lazar J, Basile DP, Pietrusz JL) Kidney Int 2005 Jun;67(6):2114-22 PMID: 15882254 05/11/2005
  • Quantitative founder-effect analysis of French Canadian families identifies specific loci contributing to metabolic phenotypes of hypertension. (Hamet P, Merlo E, Seda O, Broeckel U, Tremblay J, Kaldunski M, Gaudet D, Bouchard G, Deslauriers B, Gagnon F, Antoniol G, Pausová Z, Labuda M, Jomphe M, Gossard F, Tremblay G, Kirova R, Tonellato P, Orlov SN, Pintos J, Platko J, Hudson TJ, Rioux JD, Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Hum Genet 2005 May;76(5):815-32 PMID: 15800845 PMCID: PMC1199371 04/01/2005
  • Hyperaldosteronism and hypertension: ethnic differences. (Grim CE, Cowley AW Jr, Hamet P, Gaudet D, Kaldunski ML, Kotchen JM, Krishnaswami S, Pausova Z, Roman R, Tremblay J, Kotchen TA) Hypertension 2005 Apr;45(4):766-72 PMID: 15699471 02/09/2005
  • Genetic determinants on rat chromosome 6 modulate variation in the hypercapnic ventilatory response using consomic strains. (Dwinell MR, Forster HV, Petersen J, Rider A, Kunert MP, Cowley AW Jr, Jacob HJ) J Appl Physiol (1985) 2005 May;98(5):1630-8 PMID: 15661838 01/22/2005
  • Substitution of chromosome 1 ameliorates L-NAME hypertension and renal disease in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat. (Mattson DL, Kunert MP, Roman RJ, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005 May;288(5):F1015-22 PMID: 15644486 01/13/2005
  • Identification of persistently altered gene expression in the kidney after functional recovery from ischemic acute renal failure. (Basile DP, Fredrich K, Alausa M, Vio CP, Liang M, Rieder MR, Greene AS, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005 May;288(5):F953-63 PMID: 15632414 01/06/2005
  • Consomic rat model systems for physiological genomics. (Cowley AW Jr, Liang M, Roman RJ, Greene AS, Jacob HJ) Acta Physiol Scand 2004 Aug;181(4):585-92 PMID: 15283774 07/31/2004
  • Role of pressure in angiotensin II-induced renal injury: chronic servo-control of renal perfusion pressure in rats. (Mori T, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2004 Apr;43(4):752-9 PMID: 14981064 02/26/2004
  • The elusive field of systems biology. (Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2004 Feb 13;16(3):285-6 PMID: 14966250 02/18/2004
  • Renal oxidative stress in medullary thick ascending limbs produced by elevated NaCl and glucose. (Mori T, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2004 Feb;43(2):341-6 PMID: 14718354 01/14/2004
  • Application of chromosomal substitution techniques in gene-function discovery. (Cowley AW Jr, Roman RJ, Jacob HJ) J Physiol 2004 Jan 01;554(Pt 1):46-55 PMID: 14678490 PMCID: PMC1664739 12/18/2003
  • Reactive oxygen species and molecular regulation of renal oxygenation. (Zou AP, Cowley AW Jr) Acta Physiol Scand 2003 Nov;179(3):233-41 PMID: 14616239 11/18/2003
  • Influence of diet and genetics on hypertension and renal disease in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (Mattson DL, Kunert MP, Kaldunski ML, Greene AS, Roman RJ, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2004 Jan 15;16(2):194-203 PMID: 14600213 11/06/2003
  • Genomic map of cardiovascular phenotypes of hypertension in female Dahl S rats. (Moreno C, Dumas P, Kaldunski ML, Tonellato PJ, Greene AS, Roman RJ, Cheng Q, Wang Z, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2003 Nov 11;15(3):243-57 PMID: 14532335 10/09/2003
  • Angiotensin II-NAD(P)H oxidase-stimulated superoxide modifies tubulovascular nitric oxide cross-talk in renal outer medulla. (Mori T, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2003 Oct;42(4):588-93 PMID: 12975384 09/17/2003
  • Physiological Genomics: the next three years. (Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2003 Aug 15;14(3):169-70 PMID: 12923299 08/19/2003
  • In memoriam. Arthur C. Guyton (1919-2003). (Hall JE, Cowley AW Jr, Bishop VS, Granger DN, Navar LG, Taylor AE) Physiologist 2003 Jun;46(3):126-8 PMID: 12870325 07/23/2003
  • Consomic rats for the identification of genes and pathways underlying cardiovascular disease. (Roman RJ, Cowley AW Jr, Greene A, Kwitek AE, Tonellato PJ, Jacob HJ) Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2002;67:309-15 PMID: 12858554 07/16/2003
  • Quantitative assessment of the importance of dye switching and biological replication in cDNA microarray studies. (Liang M, Briggs AG, Rute E, Greene AS, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2003 Aug 15;14(3):199-207 PMID: 12799473 06/12/2003
  • Increased H(2)O(2) counteracts the vasodilator and natriuretic effects of superoxide dismutation by tempol in renal medulla. (Chen YF, Cowley AW Jr, Zou AP) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 Oct;285(4):R827-33 PMID: 12791586 06/07/2003
  • Increased renal medullary H2O2 leads to hypertension. (Makino A, Skelton MM, Zou AP, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2003 Jul;42(1):25-30 PMID: 12782642 06/05/2003
  • Role of renal NO production in the regulation of medullary blood flow. (Cowley AW Jr, Mori T, Mattson D, Zou AP) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 Jun;284(6):R1355-69 PMID: 12736168 05/09/2003
  • Gene expression reveals vulnerability to oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis of renal outer medulla to nonhypertensive elevations of ANG II. (Yuan B, Liang M, Yang Z, Rute E, Taylor N, Olivier M, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 May;284(5):R1219-30 PMID: 12676744 04/05/2003
  • Countercurrent exchange in the renal medulla. (Cowley AW Jr, Roman RR) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 May;284(5):R1151 PMID: 12676740 04/05/2003
  • Genomics and homeostasis. (Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 Mar;284(3):R611-27 PMID: 12571070 02/07/2003
  • Insights into Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension revealed by temporal patterns of renal medullary gene expression. (Liang M, Yuan B, Rute E, Greene AS, Olivier M, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2003 Feb 06;12(3):229-37 PMID: 12488510 12/19/2002
  • Identification of hypertension-related QTLs in African American sib pairs. (Kotchen TA, Broeckel U, Grim CE, Hamet P, Jacob H, Kaldunski ML, Kotchen JM, Schork NJ, Tonellato PJ, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2002 Nov;40(5):634-9 PMID: 12411455 11/02/2002
  • Tubulovascular nitric oxide crosstalk: buffering of angiotensin II-induced medullary vasoconstriction. (Dickhout JG, Mori T, Cowley AW Jr) Circ Res 2002 Sep 20;91(6):487-93 PMID: 12242266 09/21/2002
  • Axial stretching of extremity artery induces reversible hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cell membrane in vivo. (Monos E, Raffai G, Contney SJ, Stekiel WJ, Cowley AW Jr) Acta Physiol Hung 2001;88(3-4):197-206 PMID: 12162578 08/07/2002
  • Renal medullary nitric oxide deficit of Dahl S rats enhances hypertensive actions of angiotensin II. (Szentiványi M Jr, Zou AP, Mattson DL, Soares P, Moreno C, Roman RJ, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002 Jul;283(1):R266-72 PMID: 12069953 06/19/2002
  • Role of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the renal and vasoconstrictor actions of angiotensin II. (Alonso-Galicia M, Maier KG, Greene AS, Cowley AW Jr, Roman RJ) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002 Jul;283(1):R60-8 PMID: 12069931 06/19/2002
  • Mapping baroreceptor function to genome: a mathematical modeling approach. (Kendziorski CM, Cowley AW Jr, Greene AS, Salgado HC, Jacob HJ, Tonellato PJ) Genetics 2002 Apr;160(4):1687-95 PMID: 11973321 PMCID: PMC1462065 04/26/2002
  • Increased renal medullary oxidative stress produces hypertension. (Makino A, Skelton MM, Zou AP, Roman RJ, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2002 Feb;39(2 Pt 2):667-72 PMID: 11882628 03/08/2002
  • Vasopressin increases intracellular NO concentration via Ca(2+) signaling in inner medullary collecting duct. (Mori T, Dickhout JG, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2002 Feb;39(2 Pt 2):465-9 PMID: 11882591 03/08/2002
  • Renal medullary genes in salt-sensitive hypertension: a chromosomal substitution and cDNA microarray study. (Liang M, Yuan B, Rute E, Greene AS, Zou AP, Soares P, MCQuestion GD, Slocum GR, Jacob HJ, Cowley AW Jr) Physiol Genomics 2002 Feb 28;8(2):139-49 PMID: 11875192 03/05/2002
  • A genomic-systems biology map for cardiovascular function. (Stoll M, Cowley AW Jr, Tonellato PJ, Greene AS, Kaldunski ML, Roman RJ, Dumas P, Schork NJ, Wang Z, Jacob HJ) Science 2001 Nov 23;294(5547):1723-6 PMID: 11721057 11/27/2001
  • Oxygen-dependent expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in renal medullary cells of rats. (Zou AP, Yang ZZ, Li PL, Cowley AW JR) Physiol Genomics 2001 Aug 28;6(3):159-68 PMID: 11526200 08/30/2001
  • Production and actions of superoxide in the renal medulla. (Zou AP, Li N, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2001 Feb;37(2 Pt 2):547-53 PMID: 11230333 03/07/2001
  • Evidence that reduced renal medullary nitric oxide synthase activity of dahl s rats enables small elevations of arginine vasopressin to produce sustained hypertension. (Yuan B, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2001 Feb;37(2 Pt 2):524-8 PMID: 11230329 03/07/2001
  • Brown Norway chromosome 13 confers protection from high salt to consomic Dahl S rat. (Cowley AW Jr, Roman RJ, Kaldunski ML, Dumas P, Dickhout JG, Greene AS, Jacob HJ) Hypertension 2001 Feb;37(2 Pt 2):456-61 PMID: 11230318 03/07/2001
  • Measurement of regional blood flow in the kidney using laser-Doppler flowmetry. (Roman RJ, Mattson DL, Cowley AW Jr) Methods Mol Med 2001;51:407-26 PMID: 21331733 01/01/2001
  • Tubulointerstitial injury and loss of nitric oxide synthases parallel the development of hypertension in the Dahl-SS rat. (Johnson RJ, Gordon KL, Giachelli C, Kurth T, Skelton MM, Cowley AW Jr) J Hypertens 2000 Oct;18(10):1497-505 PMID: 11057439 11/01/2000
  • Genetically defined risk of salt sensitivity in an intercross of Brown Norway and Dahl S rats. (Cowley AW Jr, Stoll M, Greene AS, Kaldunski ML, Roman RJ, Tonellato PJ, Schork NJ, Dumas P, Jacob HJ) Physiol Genomics 2000 Apr 27;2(3):107-15 PMID: 11015589 10/04/2000
  • Role of nitric oxide in the control of renal function and salt sensitivity. (Zou AP, Cowley AW Jr) Curr Hypertens Rep 1999 Apr-May;1(2):178-86 PMID: 10981063 09/12/2000
  • alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase in NO production buffers renal medullary vasoconstriction. (Zou AP, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2000 Sep;279(3):R769-77 PMID: 10956233 08/24/2000
  • Control of the renal medullary circulation by vasopressin V1 and V2 receptors in the rat. (Cowley AW Jr) Exp Physiol 2000 Mar;85 Spec No:223S-231S PMID: 10795926 05/05/2000
  • New target regions for human hypertension via comparative genomics. (Stoll M, Kwitek-Black AE, Cowley AW Jr, Harris EL, Harrap SB, Krieger JE, Printz MP, Provoost AP, Sassard J, Jacob HJ) Genome Res 2000 Apr;10(4):473-82 PMID: 10779487 PMCID: PMC310887 04/26/2000
  • Nitric oxide in the renal medulla protects from vasopressin-induced hypertension. (Szentiványi M Jr, Park F, Maeda CY, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2000 Mar;35(3):740-5 PMID: 10720588 03/18/2000
  • Increase in renal medullary nitric oxide synthase activity protects from norepinephrine-induced hypertension. (Szentiványi M Jr, Zou AP, Maeda CY, Mattson DL, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2000 Jan;35(1 Pt 2):418-23 PMID: 10642335 01/21/2000
  • Expression and actions of heme oxygenase in the renal medulla of rats. (Zou AP, Billington H, Su N, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 2000 Jan;35(1 Pt 2):342-7 PMID: 10642322 01/21/2000
  • Chronic salt loading and the expression of adenosine receptor subtypes. (Nayeem MA, Olanrewaju HA, Mustafa SJ, Li PL, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1999 Dec;34(6):e18-9 PMID: 10601139 12/22/1999
  • Distribution of angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes in the rat kidney. (Miyata N, Park F, Li XF, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol 1999 Sep;277(3 Pt 2):F437-46 PMID: 10484527 09/14/1999
  • Quantification of nitric oxide synthase activity in microdissected segments of the rat kidney. (Wu F, Park F, Cowley AW Jr, Mattson DL) Am J Physiol 1999 Jun;276(6 Pt 2):F874-81 PMID: 10362776 06/11/1999
  • The emergence of physiological genomics. (Cowley AW Jr) J Vasc Res 1999 Mar-Apr;36(2):83-90 PMID: 10213902 04/24/1999
  • Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion. (Zou AP, Nithipatikom K, Li PL, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol 1999 Mar;276(3 Pt 2):R790-8 PMID: 10070140 03/10/1999
  • Effect of chronic salt loading on adenosine metabolism and receptor expression in renal cortex and medulla in rats. (Zou AP, Wu F, Li PL, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1999 Jan;33(1 Pt 2):511-6 PMID: 9931157 02/04/1999
  • Renal intramedullary infusion of L-arginine prevents reduction of medullary blood flow and hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (Miyata N, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1999 Jan;33(1 Pt 2):446-50 PMID: 9931145 02/04/1999
  • Local renal medullary L-NAME infusion enhances the effect of long-term angiotensin II treatment. (Szentiványi M Jr, Maeda CY, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1999 Jan;33(1 Pt 2):440-5 PMID: 9931144 02/04/1999
  • Arginine vasopressin-mediated stimulation of nitric oxide within the rat renal medulla. (Park F, Zou AP, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1998 Nov;32(5):896-901 PMID: 9822450 11/20/1998
  • Renal medullary interstitial infusion of L-arginine prevents hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (Miyata N, Zou AP, Mattson DL, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol 1998 Nov;275(5 Pt 2):R1667-73 PMID: 9791089 10/29/1998
  • Effects of long-term vasopressin receptor stimulation on medullary blood flow and arterial pressure. (Cowley AW Jr, Skelton MM, Kurth TM) Am J Physiol 1998 Nov;275(5 Pt 2):R1420-4 PMID: 9791056 10/29/1998
  • Pharmacological stimulation of arterial chemoreceptors in conscious rats produces differential responses in renal cortical and medullary blood flow. (Ledderhos C, Gross V, Cowley AW Jr) Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1998 Jul-Aug;25(7-8):536-40 PMID: 9673424 07/23/1998
  • Effects of daily sodium intake and ANG II on cortical and medullary renal blood flow in conscious rats. (Gross V, Kurth TM, Skelton MM, Mattson DL, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol 1998 May;274(5 Pt 2):R1317-23 PMID: 9644045 06/27/1998
  • Regional time-dependent changes in vasopressin V2 receptor expression in the rat kidney during water restriction. (Park F, Koike G, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol 1998 May;274(5 Pt 2):F906-13 PMID: 9612328 06/05/1998
  • Protective effect of angiotensin II-induced increase in nitric oxide in the renal medullary circulation. (Zou AP, Wu F, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1998 Jan;31(1 Pt 2):271-6 PMID: 9453315 02/07/1998
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase and blood pressure. (Mattson DL, Maeda CY, Bachman TD, Cowley AW Jr) Hypertension 1998 Jan;31(1):15-20 PMID: 9449384 02/04/1998
  • Animal rights. (Cowley AW Jr, Schafer JA, Navar LG) Science 1997 Oct 24;278(5338):557; author reply 560 PMID: 9381149 01/10/1998
  • Evidence for the presence of smooth muscle alpha-actin within pericytes of the renal medulla. (Park F, Mattson DL, Roberts LA, Cowley AW Jr) Am J Physiol 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):R1742-8 PMID: 9374818 12/31/1997
  • Last update: 09/18/2017
    jenkins-FCD Prod-132 e0edc266de37dd13c3a3aec79eb87f3c7abc6fa4